Advertisement

Ankle Fractures

  • J. Karlsson
  • S. Brandsson
  • M. Möller
Chapter

Abstract

The ankle is a complex hinge joint, in which the skeletal structures and the ligaments play an important role in terms of function, movement and stability. Normal function of the ankle is dependent on the precise structural integrity. Not only the ligaments but also the tight fit between the talus and the malleoli in the ankle mortise play an important stabilizing role. During weightbearing, the ankle is exposed to forces of between 1.2 and 5.5 times the weight of the body. This load increases the inherent stability of the joint [1].

Keywords

Internal Fixation Fragility Fracture Wrist Fracture Ankle Fracture Interosseous Membrane 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Michelson JD. Fractures about the ankle. Current concepts review. J Bone Joint Surg AM 1995;77:142–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vogt MT, Cauley JA, Kuller LH, Nevitt MC. Bone mineral density and blood flow to the lower extremities: The study of osteoporotic fractures. J Bone Miner Res 1997; 12: 283–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bauer M, Bengner U, Johnell O, Redlund-Johnell I. Supination-eversion fractures of the ankle joint: Changes in incidence over 30 years. Foot Ankle 1987;8:26–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hansen LN. Fractures of the ankle. II. Combined experimental-surgical and experi-mental-roentgenologic investigations. Arch Surg 1950;60:957–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ashurst A, Bromer R. Classification and mechanism of fractures of the leg involving the ankle. Arch Surg 1922;4:51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yde J. The Lauge Hansen classification of malleolar fractures. Acta Orthop Scand 1980; 51:181–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weber BG. Die Verletzungen des oberen Sprunggelenkes, 2nd ed. 1972; Bern: Hans Huber.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lindsjö U. Classification of ankle fractures: the Lauge-Hansen or AO system. Clin Orthop 1985;199:12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Harper MC. Ankle fracture classification systems: a case for integration of the Lauge-Hansen and AO-Danis-Weber schemes. Foot Ankle 1992;13:404–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Michelson J, Solocoff D, Waldman B, Kendall K, Ahn U. Ankle fractures. The Lauge-Hansen classification revisited. Clin Orthop 1997;345:198–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nilsson BER. Age and sex incidence of ankle fractures. Acta Orthop Scand 1969; 40: 122–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Johnell O, Nilsson B, Obrant K, Sernbo I. Age and sex patterns of hip fracture-changes in 30 years. Acta Orthop Scand 1984;55:290–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nguyen T, Sambrook P, Kelly P, Jones G, Lord S, Freund J, Eisman J. Prediction of osteoporotic fractures by postural instability and bone density. BMJ 1993;307:1111–1115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singer BR, McLauchlan GJ, Robinson CM, Christie J. Epidemiology of fractures in 15,000 adults. The influence of age and gender. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1998;80:243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jones G, Nguyen T, Sambrook PN, Kelly PJ, Gilbert C, Eisman JA Symptomatic fracture incidence in elderly men and women: the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). Osteoporos Int 1994;4:277–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bengner U, Johnell O, Redlund-Johnell I. Epidemiology of ankle fractures 1950 and 1980. Increasing incidence in elderly women. Acta Orthop Scand 1986;57:35–37.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kannus P, Parkkari J, Niemi S, Palvanen M. Epidemiology of osteoporotic ankle fractures in elderly patients in Finland. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:975–978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Daly PJ, Fitzgerald RH, Melton LJ, Ilstrup DM. Epidemiology of ankle fractures in Rochester, Minnesota. Acta Orthop Scand 1987;58:539–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Court-Brown CM, McBirnie J, Wilson G. Adult ankle fractures: an increasing problem? Acta Orthop Scand 1988;69:43–47.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baron JA, Barrett J, Malenka D, Fisher E, Kniffin W, Bubolz T, Tosteson T. Racial differences in fracture risk. Epidemiology 1994;5:42–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baron JA, Barrett JA, Karagas MR. The epidemiology of peripheral fracture. Bone 1996; 18 (Suppl): 209S–231S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jensen SL, Andresen BK, Mencke S, Nielsen PT. Epidemiology of ankle fractures. A prospective population-based study of 212 cases in Aalborg, Denmark. Acta Orthop Scand 1988;69:48–50.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lauritzen JB, Lund B. Risk of hip fracture after osteoporosis fractures: 451 women with fracture of lumbar spine, olecranon, knee or ankle. Acta Orthop Scand 1993;64: 297–300.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Gunnes M, Mellström D, Johnell O. How well can a previous fracture indicate a new fracture? A questionnaire study of 29,802 postmenopausal women. Acta Orthop Scand 1998;69:508–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Honkanen R, Tuppurainen M, Kroger H, Alhava E, Saarikoski S. Relationships between risk factors and fractures differ by type of fracture: a population-based study of 12 192 perimenopausal women. Osteoporos Int 1998;8:25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seeley DG, Kelsey J, Jergas M, Nevitt MC. Predictors of ankle and foot fractures in older woman. The Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Research Group. J Bone Miner Res 1996;11:1347–1355.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Karlsson MK, Hasserius R, Obrant K. Individuals who sustain nonosteoporotic fractures continue to also sustain fragility fractures. Calcif Tissue Int 1993;53:229–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bauer M, Bergström B, Hemborg A, Sandegârd J. Malleolar fractures: nonoperative versus operative treatment. A controlled study. Clin Orthop 1987;199:17–27.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Litchfield JC. The treatment of unstable fractures of the ankle in the elderly. Injury 1987;18:128–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Beauchamp CG, Clay NR, Thaxton PW, Displaced ankle fractures in patients over 50 years of age. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1983;65:329–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fernandez GN. Internal fixation of the oblique, osteoporotic fracture of the lateral malleolus. Injury 1988;19:257–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Karlsson
  • S. Brandsson
  • M. Möller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations