• William M. Steen


It has been true throughout history that every time mankind has mastered a new form of energy there has been a significant, if not massive, step forward in our quality of life. Due to the discovery of the laser in 1960 optical energy in large quantities and in a controlled form is now available as a new form of energy for the civilised world. So it is reasonable to have great expectations.


Optical Energy Yttrium Aluminium Ruby Laser Laser Material Processing Unstable Resonator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Maiman.T.H. “Stimulated Optical Radiation in Ruby” Nature Aug 6th 1960.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    EinsteinA. Phys Z, 18 121 1917.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Klauminzer.G.K. “Twenty years of Commercial Lasers-A capsule History” Laser Focus/Electrooptics Dec 1984 pp 54–60.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Patel.C.K.N. 1964 Phys Rev 136 A1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • William M. Steen
    • 1
  1. 1.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK

Personalised recommendations