Implantation pp 207-215 | Cite as

Early Pregnancy and its Failure after Assisted Conception: Diagnosis by Ultrasonic and Biochemical Techniques

  • A. F. Riddle
  • I. Stabile
  • V. Sharma
  • S. Campbell
  • B. A. Mason
  • J. G. Grudzinskas


Monitoring in early pregnancy can be performed by both ultrasound and biochemical techniques. The diagnosis of pregnancy has traditionally been made by the detection of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) in blood or urine, although Schwangerschaftsprotein 1 (SP1) can also be used (Grudzinskas et al. 1977), especially when exogenous hCG has been administered in the luteal phase (Grudzinskas et al. 1986). Transabdominal ultrasound cannot detect a pregnancy until the late fifth or early sixth week from the last menstrual period (Batzer et al. 1983), two to three weeks later than hCG. Thus biochemical analysis continues to be the best method for detection of early pregnancy. However, ultrasound has made a major impact on pregnancy monitoring from the seventh week onwards* — i.e. when the fetal heart can be detected (Robinson 1975; Jouppila et al. 1980a, b; Hertz et al. 1980).


Obstet Gynecol Intrauterine Pregnancy Pregnancy Failure Heterotopic Pregnancy Abnormal Pregnancy 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. F. Riddle
  • I. Stabile
  • V. Sharma
  • S. Campbell
  • B. A. Mason
  • J. G. Grudzinskas

There are no affiliations available

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