The Gastrointestinal Tract and Exocrine Pancreas

  • S. Variend


The gut derives from that part of the secondary yolk sac which becomes enclosed by the head, tail and lateral folds of the embryonic plate at around the 20th day of development. The head and tail folds enclose the fore- and hindgut respectively. The intermediate portion of the intraembryonic yolk sac formed the midgut which connects through a wide communication with the extraembryonic part of the secondary yolk sac (the definitive yolk sac). This communication becomes progressively reduced by better definition of the head, tail and lateral folds of the embryo (Fig. 16.1); by 28 days the communication is via a narrow vitelline duct and the umbilical cord is clearly visible. At about this time the primitive foregut and hindgut come into contact with rostral and caudal invaginations, the stomodeum and proctodeum. Most of the epithelium and glands of the digestive tract originate from embryonic endoderm, while the epithelium of the cranial and caudal ends is derived respectively from the stomodeum and proctodeum.


Cystic Fibrosis Abdominal Wall Defect Duodenal Atresia Intestinal Atresia Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aitken J (1963) Exomphalos. Analysis of a 10 year series of 32 cases. Arch Dis Child 38: 126–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrami G, Dennison WM (1961) Duplication of the stomach. Surgery 49: 794–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amoury RA, Ashcraft KW, Holder TM (1977) Gastroschisis complicated by intestinal atresia. Surgery 82 3: 373–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrew A (1971) The origin of intramural ganglia. IV The origin of enteric ganglia: a critical review and discussion of the present state of the problem. J Anat 108 1: 169–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery ME, Fletcher BD, Williams RG (1981) The lung and its disorders in the newborn infant, 4th edn. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  6. Barr LC, Booth J, Filipe MI, Lawson JON (1985) Clinical evaluation of the histochemical diagnosis of Hirschsprung’s disease. Gut 26: 393–399.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bax NMA, Pearse RG, Dommering N, Molenaar JC (1980) Perforation of the appendix in the neonatal period. J Pediatr Surg 15 2: 200–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bell MJ, Ternberg JL, Keating JP, Moedjona S, McAlister W, Shackelford GD (1978) Prepyloric gastric antral web: a puzzling epidemic. J Pediatr Surg 13 3: 307–313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bell MJ, Keating JP, Ternberg JL, Bower RJ (1981) Perforated stress ulcers in infants. J Pediatr Surg 166: 998–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Benson CD, Lloyd JR, Smith JD (1960) Resection and primary anastomosis in the management of stenosis and atresia of the jejunum and ileum. Pediatrics 26: 265–272.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bentley JFR, Smith JR (1960) Developmental posterior enteric remnants and spinal malformations. The split notochord syndrome. Arch Dis Child 35: 76–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bernstein J, Vawter G, Harris GBC, Young V, Hillman LS (1960) The occurrence of intestinal atresia in newborns with meconium ileus. AMA J Dis Child 99: 804–818.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Berry CL, Fraser GC (1968) The experimental production of colitis in the rabbit with particular reference to Hirschsprung’s disease. J Pediatr Surg 3: 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bill AH, Chapman ND (1962) The enterocolitis of Hirschsprung’s disease. Am J Surg 103: 70–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blank E, Chisolm AJ (1973) Congenital microgastria, a case report with a 26 year follow-up. Pediatrics 51 6: 1037–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Blyth H, Dickson JAS (1969) Apple peel syndrome (congenital intestinal atresia). A family study of seven index patients. J Med Genet 63: 275–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bremer JL (1944) Diverticula and duplications of the intestinal tract. Arch Pathol 38: 132–140.Google Scholar
  18. Bunton GL, Durbin GM, McIntosh N et al. (1977) Necrotising enterocolitis. Arch Dis Child 52: 772–777.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cantrell JR, Haller JA, Ravitch MM (1958) A syndrome of congenital defects involving the abdominal wall, sternum, diaphragm, pericardium and heart. Surg Gynecol Obstet 107: 602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clatworthy HW, Howard WHR, Lloyd J (1956) The meconium plug syndrome. Surgery 39: 131–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cochran WD, Davis HT, Smith CS (1968) Advantages and complications of umbilical artery catheterisation in the newborn. Pediatrics 42: 769–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cook RCM, Rickham PP (1969) Neonatal intestinal obstruction due to milk curds. J Pediatr Surg 46: 599–605.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Corkery JJ, Dubowitz V, Lister J, Moosa A (1968) Colonic perforation after exchange transfusion. Br Med J II: 345–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cotton PB (1980) Congenital anomaly of pancreas divisum as cause of obstructive pain and pancreatitis. Gut 21: 105–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cruickshank AH (1986) Pathology of the pancreas. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cunningham P, Rose JS, Sokol A, Bleicher MA (1980) A case of neonatal intussusception. J Pediatr Surg 152: 203–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Currie ABM, Hemalatha AH, Doraiswamy NV, Cox SA (1983) Colonic atresia associated with Hirschsprung’s disease. J R Coll Surg Edinb 28: 31–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. deLorimier AA, Fonkalsrud EW, Hays DM (1969) Congenital atresia and stenosis of the jejunum and ileum. Surgery 655: 819–827.Google Scholar
  29. Denes J, Honti J, Leb J (1967) Dorsal herniation of the gut: a rare manifestation of the split notochord syndrome. J Pediatr Surg 24: 359–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. deVries P (1980) The pathogenesis of gastroschisis and omphalocele. J Pediatr Surg 153: 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dickson JAS (1970) Apple peel small bowel: an uncommon variant of duodenal and jejunal atresia. J Pediatr Surg 5 (6) 595–600.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dickson JAS, Variend S (1983): Colonie neuronal dysplasia. Acta Paediatr Scand 72: 635–637.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dohn K, Povlsen O (1951) Enterocystomas. Report of six cases. Acta Chir Scand 102: 21–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Donnison AB, Shwachman H, Gross RE (1966) A review of 164 children with meconium ileus seen at the Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Boston. Pediatrics 375: 833–850.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Dudgeon DL, Coran AG, Lauppe FA, Hodgman Joan E, Rosenkrantz JG (1973) Surgical management of acute necrotising enterocolitis in infancy. J Pediatr Surg 8: 607–614.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Duhamel B (1963) Embryology of exomphalos and allied malformations. Arch Dis Child 38: 142–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Durham Smith E (1968) Urinary anomalies and complications in imperforate anus and rectum. J Pediatr Surg 33: 337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elliott K, Knight J (1974) Size at birth. Ciba Found Symp 27: 202–203.Google Scholar
  39. Engel RR, Virnig NL, Hunt CE, Levitt MD (1973) Origin of mural gas in necrotising enterocolitis. Pediatr Res 7: 292.Google Scholar
  40. Esterly JR, Baghdassarian OM (1963) Presacral neuroenteric cyst: an unusual malformation resulting from persistence of the neuroenteric canal. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 113: 202–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fallon M, Gordon ARG, Lendrum AC (1954) Mediastinal cysts of foregut origin associated with vertebral abnormalities. Br J Surg 41: 520–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Favara BE, Franciosi RA, Akers DR (1971) Enteric duplications. Thirty seven cases: a vascular theory of pathogenesis. Am J Dis Child 122: 501–506.Google Scholar
  43. Fonkalsrud EW, deLorimier AA, Hays DM (1969) Congenital atresia and stenosis of the duodenum. Pediatrics 431: 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Forouhar F (1982) Meconium peritonitis. Am J Clin Pathol 78: 208–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Franz ID, L’Heureux P, Engel RR, Hunt CE (1975) Necrotising enterocolitis. J Pediatr 86: 259–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Fuhr AH, Krogh PHJ (1972) Congenital epulis of the newborn. J Oral Surg 30: 30–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Garrett JR, Howard ER, Nixon HH (1969) Autonomic nerves in rectum and colon in Hirschsprung’s disease. A cholinesterase and catecholamine histochemical study. Arch Dis Child 44: 406–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Gauderer MWL, Rothstein FC, Izant RJ (1984) Ileal atresia with long-segment Hirschsprung’s disease in a neonate. J Pediatr Surg 191: 15–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Goldberg HM, Johnson TP (1962) Posterior abdomino-thoracic enteric duplications. Br J Surg 50: 445–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gonzalez-Crussi F (1980) Extragonadal teratomas. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington DC.Google Scholar
  51. Goto S, Ikeda K, Toyohara T (1984) Histochemical confirmation of the acetylcholinesterase-activity in rectal suction biopsy from neonates with Hirschsprung’s disease. Z Kinderchir 39: 246–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gough MH (1961) Congenital abnormalities of the anus and rectum. Arch Dis Child 36: 146–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Greenwood RD, Rosenthal A, Nadas AS (1974) Cardiovascular malformations associated with omphalocele. J Pediatr 856: 818–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Grosfeld JL, O’Neill JA, Clatworthy HW (1970) Enteric duplications in infancy and childhood: an 18 year review. Ann Surg 1721: 83–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Grosfeld JL, Dalsing MC, Hull M, Weber TR (1983) Neonatal apnea, xanthines, and necrotising enterocolitis. J Pediatr Surg 181: 80–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hakanson DO, Oh W (1977) Necrotising enterocolitis and hyperviscosity in the newborn infant. J Pediatr 90: 458–461.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hashida Y, Jaffe R, Yunis EJ (1983) Pancreatic pathology in trisomy 13: specificity of the morphologic lesion. Pediatr Pathol 1: 169–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Higginbottom MC, Jones KL, Hall BD, Smith DW (1979) The amniotic band disruption complex: timing of amniotic rupture and variable spectra of consequent defects. J Pediatr 954: 544–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Holder TM, Cloud DT, Lewis JE, Pilling GP IV (1964) Esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula. Pediatrics 34: 542–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Holgersen LO (1981) The etiology of spontaneous gastric perforation of the newborn: a reevaluation. J Pediatr Surg 16 (4, 1): 608–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Holsclaw DS, Eckstein HB, Nixon HH (1965) Meconium ileus. A 20 year review of 109 cases. Am J Dis Child 109: 101–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Houston HE, Lynn HB (1966) Duplications of the small intestine in children: Mayo clinic experience and review of the literature. Mayo Clin Proc 41: 246–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Howard FM, Flynn DM, Bradley JM, Noone P, Swawatkowski M (1977) Outbreak of necrotising enterocolitis caused by Clostridium butyricum. Lancet II: 1099–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Howell WE, Stein H, Tomaro AJ (1972) Sublingual dermoid cyst in infant: report of case. J Oral Surg 30: 437–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Hoyme HE, Higginbottom MC, Jones KL (1981) The vascular pathogenesis of gastroschisis: intrauterine interruption of the omphalomesenteric artery. J Pediatr 982: 228–231.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Huntley CC, Shaffner L, Challa VR, Lyerly AD (1982) Histochemical diagnosis of Hirschsprung disease. Pediatrics 696: 775–761.Google Scholar
  67. Jackson JM (1963) Annular pancreas and duodenal obstruction in the neonate. A review. Arch Surg 87: 379–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Jackson RH, Bird AR (1961) Meckel’s diverticulum in childhood. Br Med J II: 1399–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Johnston JH, Penn IA (1966) Exstrophy of the cloaca. Br J Urol 38: 302–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jones PG (1963) Exomphalos (syn. omphalocele). A review of 45 cases. Arch Dis Child 38: 180–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kiesewetter WB, Smith JW (1958) Malrotation of the midgut in infancy and childhood. AMA Arch Surg 77: 483–491.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. King A, Mueller RF, Heeley AR, Robertson NRC (1986) Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in premature infants. Pediatr Res 20: 536–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. King DR, Savrin R, Boles ET (1980) Gastroschisis update. J Pediatr Surg 154: 553–557.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Klein MD, Coran JAG, Wesley JR, Drongowski RA (1984) Hirschsprung’s disease in the newborn. J Pediatr Surg 94: 370–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Kleinhaus S, Boley SJ, Sheran M, Sieber WK (1979) Hirschsprung’s disease. A survey of the members of the surgical section of the American Academy of Pediatrics. J Pediatr Surg 145: 588–597.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Knight PJ, Sommer A, Clatworthy HW (1981) Omphalocele: a prognostic classification. J Pediatr Surg 16 (4, 1): 599–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kopel FB (1972) Gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis. Curr Clin Concepts 623: 483–491.Google Scholar
  78. Lemire RJ, Graham CB, Beckwith JB (1971) Skin-covered sacrococcygeal masses in infants and children. J Pediatr 796: 948–954.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lemons JA, Ridenour R, Orsini EN (1979) Congenital absence. of the pancreas and intrauterine growth retardation. Pediatrics 64 (2): 255–257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lister J, Rickham PP (1980) Hirschsprung’s disease. In: Rickham PP, Lister J, Irving IM (eds) Neonatal surgery, 2nd edn. Butterworths, London, pp 441–455.Google Scholar
  81. Lloyd JR (1969) The etiology of gastrointestinal perforations in the newborn. J Pediatr Surg 4: 77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lorimer WS, Ellis DG (1966) Meconium peritonitis. Surgery 602: 470–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Louw JH (1966) Jejunoileal atresia and stenosis. J Pediatr Surg 11: 8–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Mann L, Ferguson-Smith MA, Desai M, Gibson AAM, Raine PAM (1984) Prenatal assessment of anterior abdominal wall defects and their prognosis. Prenat Diagn 4: 427–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Marchildon MB, Buck BE, Abdenour G (1982) Necrotising enterocolitis in the unfed infant. J Pediatr Surg 17: 620–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Martinez-Mora J, Boix-Ochoa J, Tresserra L (1971) Vascular tumours of the parotid region in children. Surg Gynecol Obstet 133: 973–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. McLetchie NGB, Purves JK, Saunders RLdeCH (1954) The genesis of gastric and certain intestinal diverticula and enterogenous cysts. Surg Gynecol Obstet 99: 135–141.Google Scholar
  88. Meier-Ruge W (1974) Hirschsprung’s disease: its aetiology, pathogenesis and differential diagnosis. Curr Top Pathol 59: 131–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Merriam JC, Benirschke K (1959) Esophageal erosions in the newborn. Lab Invest 8: 39–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mizrahi A, Barlow O, Berdon W, Blanc WA, Silverman WA (1965) Necrotising enterocolitis in premature infants. J Pediatr 66: 697–706.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Moore TC, Schumacker HB (1952) Intussusception of ileum through persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Surgery 31: 278–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Morrell MT, Keynes M (1981) Annular pancreas. In: Keynes WM, Keith RG (eds) The pancreas. Heinemann, London, pp 159–168.Google Scholar
  93. Nacheff M, Morgan R, Einsenstein EM (1964) The surgical treatment of perforated duodenal ulcer in the newborn. Am J Surg 108: 717–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Nakayama DK, Harrison MR, Gross BH et al. (1984) Management of the fetus with an abdominal wall defect. J Pediatr Surg 19: 408–413.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Neal WA, Reynolds JW, Jarvis CW, Williams HJ (1972) Umbilical artery catheterisation: demonstration of arterial thrombosis by aortography. Pediatrics 50: 6–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Nicolaides KH, Rodeck CH, Fosden CM (1986) Rapid karyotyping in non-lethal fetal malformations. Lancet I: 283–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nixon HH, Tawes R (1971) Etiology and treatment of small intestinal atresia: analysis of a series of 127 jejunoileal atresias and comparison with 62 duodenal atresias. Surgery 69: 41–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Okamoto E, Ueda T (1967) Embryogenesis of intramural ganglia of the gut and its relation to Hirschsprung’s disease. J Pediatr Surg 25: 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Oppenheimer EH, Esterly JR (1962) Observations in cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. II Neonatal intestinal obstruction. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 111: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Oppenheimer EH, Esterly JR (1975) Pathology of cystic fibrosis. Review of literature and comparison with 146 autopsied cases. In: Rosenberg HS, Bolande RP (eds) Perspectives in pediatric pathology, vol 2. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, pp 241–278.Google Scholar
  101. Parrish RA, Sherman RT, Wilson H (1964) Spontaneous rupture of the gastro-enteric tract in the newborn: a report of 13 cases and description of a characteristic x-ray finding. Ann Surg 159: 244–251.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Partridge JP, Gough MH (1961) Congenital abnormalities of the anus and rectum. Br J Surg 49: 37–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Philippart AI, Reed JO, Geargeson KE (1975) Neonatal small left colon syndrome: intramural not intraluminal obstruction. J Pediatr Surg 10: 733–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Pokorny WJ, McGill CW, Harberg FJ (1984) Morgagni hernias during infancy: presentation and associated anomalies. J Pediatr Surg 19 4: 394–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Quan L, Smith DW (1973) The VATER association. J Pediatr 821: 104–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rector LE, Connerley ML (1941) Aberrant mucosa in the esophagus in infants and in children. Arch Pathol 313: 285–294.Google Scholar
  107. Reiquam CW, Allen RP, Akers DR (1965) Normal and abnormal small bowel lengths. An analysis of 389 autopsy cases in infants and children. Am J Dis Child 109: 447–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rickham PP (1955) Peritonitis in the neonatal period. Arch Dis Child 30: 23–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Rickham PP, Boeckman CR (1965) Neonatal meconium obstruction in the absence of mucoviscidosis. Am J Surg 109: 173–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Rodin AE, Nichols MM, Hsu FL (1973) Necrotising enterocolitis occurring in full-term neonates at birth. Arch Pathol 96: 335–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Rohde RA, Hodgman JE, Cleland RS (1964) Multiple congenital anomalies in the El-trisomy (Group 16–18) syndrome. Pediatrics 33: 258–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Rothschild HB, Storck A, Myers B (1953) Mesenteric occlusion in a newborn infant. J Pediatr 43: 569–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Santulli TV, Amoury RA (1967) Congenital anomalies of the gastrointestinal tract. Pediatr Clin North Am 14: 21–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Santulli TV, Blanc WA (1961) Congenital atresia of the intestine: pathogenesis and treatment. Am Surg 151: 939–948.Google Scholar
  115. Santulli TV, Schullinger JN, Heird WC et al. (1975) Acute necrotising enterocolitis in infancy: a review of 64 cases. Pediatrics 55: 376–387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Shaw A (1975) The myth of gastroschisis. J Pediatr Surg 102: 235–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Smith B, Clatworthy HW (1961) Meconium peritonitis: prognostic significance. Pediatrics 27: 967–970.Google Scholar
  118. Smith DW (1982) Recognizable patterns of human malformation. Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  119. Smith JR (1960) Accessory enteric formations. Arch Dis Child 35: 87–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Snyder WH, Chaffin L (1954) Embryology and pathology of the intestinal tract: presentation of 40 cases of malrotation. Ann Surg 140: 368–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Spicer RD (1982) Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: a review. Br J Surg 69: 128–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Stephens FD, Durham Smith E (1986) Classification, identification and assessment of surgical treatment of anorectal anomalies. Pediatr Surg Int 1: 200–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Stevenson JK, Graham CB, Oliver TK, Goldenberg VE (1969) Neonatal necrotising enterocolitis—a report of twenty-one cases with fourteen survivors. Am J Surg 118: 260–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Stewart DR, Colodny AL, Dagget WC (1976) Malrotation of the bowel in infants and children: a 15 year review. Surgery 796: 716–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Tang TT, Glicklich M, Siegesmund KA, Oechler HW, McCreadie SR (1979) Neonatal cystic choristoma in submandibular salivary gland simulating cystic hygroma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 103: 537–539.Google Scholar
  126. Teich S, Schisgall RM, Anderson KD (1986) Ischemic enterocolitis as a complication of Hirschsprung’s disease. J Pediatr Surg 212: 143–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Temtamy SA, Miller JD (1974) Extending the scope of the VATER association: definition of the VATER syndrome. J Pediatr 853: 345–349.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Thomaidis TS, Arey JB (1963) The intestinal lesions in cystic fibrosis of the pancreas. J Pediatr 63: 444–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Thomas DFM, Fernie DS, Bayston R, Spitz L, Nixon HH (1986) Enterocolitis in Hirschsprung’s disease: a controlled study of the etiologic role of Clostridium difficile. J Pediatr Surg 211: 22–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Touloukian RJ (1973) Gastric ischaemia: the primary factor in neonatal perforation. Clin Paediatr 12: 219–225.Google Scholar
  131. Toyama WM (1972) Combined congenital defects of the anterior abdominal wall, sternum, diaphragm, pericardium, and heart: a case report and review of the syndrome. Pediatrics 505: 778–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Van Der Putte SCJ (1986) Normal and abnormal development of the anorectum. J Pediatr Surg 215: 434–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Vawter GF, Tefift M (1966) Congenital tumours of the parotid gland. Arch Pathol 82: 242–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Veeneklaas GMH (1952) Pathogenesis of intrathoracic gastrogenic cysts. Am J Dis Child 83: 500–507.Google Scholar
  135. Vinograd I, Mogle P, Peleg O, Alpan G, Lernau OZ (1981) Meconium disease in premature infants with very low birth weight. J Pediatr 103: 963–966.Google Scholar
  136. Waterston DJ, Bonham Carter RE, Aberdeen E (1962) Oesophageal atresia: tracheo-oesophageal fistula. A study of survival in 218 infants. Lancet I: 819–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Weaver DD, Mapstone CL, Yu P (1986) The Vater association. Analysis of 46 patients. Am J Dis Child 140: 225–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Weinberg AG (1975) Hirschsprung’s disease—a pathologist’s view. In: Rosenberg HS, Bolande RP (eds) Perspectives in pediatric pathology, vol 2. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, pp 207–239.Google Scholar
  139. Weitzman JJ, Vanderhoof RS (1966) Jejunal atresia with agenesis of the dorsal mesentery. Am J Surg 111: 443–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. White RB (1956) Meconium peritonitis: a surgical emergency. J Pediatr 48: 793–796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Young DG, Wilkinson AW (1968) Abnormalities associated with neonatal duodenal obstruction. Surgery 635: 832–836.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Yutani C, Sakurai M, Miyaji T, Okuno M (1973) Congenital short intestine. Arch Pathol 96: 81–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Variend

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations