Radiological Investigations

  • Miriam Sperber


Plain radiographs of the thorax remain a valuable diagnostic tool in the initial evaluation of patients with diffuse lung disorders [1,2,3]. They are routinely obtained with the patient in an erect position, with fully suspended respiration, preferably at total lung capacity and with an exposure duration of less than 0.05. The film to anode distance should normally be 1.8 m.


Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Conventional Compute Tomography Diffuse Lung Diffuse Lung Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Hubbell FA, Greenfield S, Tyler JL, et al. (1985) The impact of routine admission chest x-ray on patient care. N Engl J Med 312: 209–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Felson B (1973) Chest Roentgenology. WB Saunders Company, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jacobson G, Bohling H, Kiviluoto R (1970) Essentials of chest radiography. Radiology 95: 445–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Lynch PA (1965) A different approach to chest roentgenography: Triad technique (high kilovoltage, grid, wedge filter). Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 93: 965–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilkinson GA, Fraser RG (1975) Roentgenography of the chest. Appl Radiol 4: 41.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fraser RG, Paré JAP (1977) Diagnosis of diseases of the chest. WB Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yerushalmy J, Harkness JT, Cope JH et al. (1950) Role of dual reading in mass radiography. Am Rev Tuberc 61: 443.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Garland LH (1959) Studies on the accuracy of diagnostic procedures. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 82: 25–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kundel HL (1975) Radiological image perception. Appl Radiol 4: 27–96.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kattan KR (1984). Some telltales and pitfalls in chest radiology. In: Kattan KR, Guest ed. Symposium on Nonpulmonary Aspects in Chest Radiology, Rad Clin North Am 22: 467–85.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gur D, Rockette HE, Good WF et al. (1990) Effect of observer instruction on ROC study of chest images. Invest Radiol 25: 230–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mann H (1990) Common errors in evaluating chest radiographs. Postgrad Med 87: 275–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Westra D (1990). Conventional chest radiography. In: Sperber M, ed. Radiological Diagnosis of Chest Disease. Springer-Verlag, New York, 39–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brogdon BG, Kesley CA, Moseley RD (1983). Factors affecting perception of pulmonary lesions. In: Putman CE, guest ed. Symposium in Cardio-pulmonary Imaging. Radiol Clin North Am 21: 633–54.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Alter AJ, Kargas GA, Kargas SA et al. (1982) The influence of ambient and viewbox light upon visual detection of low contrast targets in a radiograph. Invest Radiol 17: 402–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Good BC, Cooperstein LA, DeMarino GB et al. (1990) Does knowledge of the clinical history affect the accuracy of chest radiograph interpretation? Am J Roentgenol 15: 709–12.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Newell RR, Garneau R (1951) The threshold visibil-ity of pulmonary shadows. Radiology 56: 409–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beckenridge JW, Bird GC (1977) Errors of omission in pulmonary nodule detection. Appl Radiol 6: 51–4.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kelsey CA, Moseley RD, Brogdon BG et al. (1977) Effect of size and position on chest lesion detection. Am J Roentgenol 129: 205–8.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hessel SJ, Herman PG, Swensson RG (1978) Improving performance by multiple interpretations of chest radiographs: Effectiveness and cost. Radiology 127: 589–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herman PF, Hessel SJ (1975) Accuracy and its relationship to experience in the interpretation of chest radiographs. Invest Radiol 10: 62–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Herman PG, Gerson DE, Hessel SK et al. (1975) Disagreement in chest roentgen interpretation. Chest 68: 278–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Felson B (1979) A new look at pattern recognition of diffuse pulmonary disease. AJR 133: 183–9.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Felson B (1966) Disseminated interstitial diseases of the lung. Ann Radiol 9: 325–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Freundlich IM (1979) Diffuse pulmonary disease. A radiologic approach. WB Saunders Co, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Johnson TH, Gajaraj A, Feist JH (1970) Patterns of pulmonary interstitial disease. Am J Roentgenol 109: 516–21.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ziskind MM, Weill H, Payzaut AR (1964) Recognition of distinctive radiologic patterns in diffuse pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 114: 108–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cherniak RM, Crystal RG, Kalica AR (1991) Current concepts in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a road map for the future. Am Rev Respir Dis 14: 680–3.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Friedman PJ (1983) Radiologic reporting: describing the lungs and pleura. AJR 140: 1030–1.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carrington CB, Gaensler EA (1978) Clinical-pathologic approach to diffuse infiltrative lung disease. In: Thurlbeck WM, Bell MRA, eds. The lung. IAP monograph nr. 19. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, 58–87.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Read J (1961) Diffuse lung disease: Clinical and radiological features. Med J Aust 2: 241–6.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Felson B (1952) Acute miliary diseases of the lung. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 59: 32–48.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smith GR, van Belle G, Loop JW (1978) Pattern dis-crimination in matching chest radiographs. Radiology 127: 595–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Recaverren S, Benton C, Gall EA (1967) The pathology of acute alveolar diseases of the lung. Semin Roentgenol 2: 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Reid H (1958) The secondary lobule in the adult human lung, with special reference to its appear-ance in bronchograms. Thorax 13: 110–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Reed JC (1981) Chest Radiology: Patterns and dif-ferential diagnosis. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Trapnell DH (1973) The differential diagnosis of linear shadows in chest radiographs. Radiol Clin North Am 11: 77–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Heitzman ER (1973) The Lung. Radiologic- pathologic correlation. Mosby, St. Louis.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reed JC, Madewell JE (1975) The air bronchogram in interstitial diseases of the lungs. Radiology 116: 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ziskind MM, Weill H, Payzaut AR (1963) The recognition and significance of acinus-filling processes of the lungs. Am Rev Respir Dis 87: 551–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gamsu G, Thurlbeck WM, Macklem PT et al. (1971) Roentgenographic appearance of the human pul-monary acinus. Invest Radiol 6: 171–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gaensler EA, Carrington CB (1980) Open lung biopsy for chronic diffuse infiltrative lung diseases: clinical, roentgenographic and physiologic correlation in 502 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 30: 411–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Genereux GP (1985) Pattern recognition in diffuse lung disease: a review of theory and practice. Med Radiogr Photog 61: 2–31.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Epler GR, McLoud TC, Gaensler EA et al. (1978) Normal chest roentgenograms in chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease. N Engl J Med 298: 934–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Heitzman ER, Markarian B, Berger I et al. (1969) The secondary pulmonary lobule: A practical concept interpretation of chest radiographs. Radiology 93: 507–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    International Labour Office (1980) Guidelines for the use of ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 22. ILO, Geneva.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    McLoud TC, Carrington CB, Gaensler EA (1983) Diffuse infiltrative lung disease: A new scheme for description. Radiology 149: 353–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gurney JW, Schroeder BA (1988) Upper lobe lung disease: Physiologic correlates. Radiology 167: 359–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Friedman PJ, Liebow AA, Sokoloff J (1981) Eosinophilic granuloma of lung: Clinical aspects of primary pulmonary histiocytosis in the adult. Medicine 60: 385–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lacroniqu J, Roth C, Battesti JP et al. (1982) Chest radiological features of pulmonary histiocytosis X: a report on 50 adult cases. Thorax 37: 104–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kirks DR, McCormick VD, Greenspan RH (1973) Pulmonary sarcoidosis: roentgenologic analysis of 150 patients. Am J Roentgenol Rad Therm Nucl Med 117: 777–86.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    McConnochie K (1990) Mineral pneumoconiosis. In: Sperber M, ed. Radiologic diagnosis of chest disease. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 386–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Connell JV Jr, Muhm JR (1976) Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary histoplasmosis: a 10–year review. Radiology 121: 281–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hunninghake GW, Fauci AS (1979) Pulmonary involvement in the collagen vascular diseases. Am Rev Resp Dis 119: 471–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Leavitt RY, Fauci AS (1986) Pulmonary vasculitis. Am Rev Resp Dis 134: 149–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    McConnochie K, Gibb A, Campbell MJ et al. (1988) Pathology and radiology correlations in Welsh slate workers. Thorax 43: 291 P.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Davis JMG (1984) The pathology of asbestos-related disease. Thorax 39: 801–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Felson B (1979) A new look at pattern recognition of diffuse pulmonary disease. AJR 133: 183–9.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bergin CJ, Muller NL (1985) CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. AJR 145: 505–10.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Muller NL, Miller RR (1990) Computed tomography of chronic diffuse lung disease. Parts 1 and 2. Am Rev Resp Dis 142:1206–15, 1440–8.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Aberle DR, Gamsu G, Ray CS (1988) High-resolution CT of benign asbestos-related diseases: clinical and radiographic correlation. AJR 151: 883–91.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schurawitzki H, Stiglbauer R, Graninger W et al. (1990) Interstitial lung disease in progressive systemic sclerosis: high-resolution CT versus radiography. Radiology 176: 755–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Swensen SJ (1994) Focal lung disease: CT and high-resolution CT applications. Radiographics 14: 169–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Webb WR, Muller NL, Naidich DP (1996) High-resolution CT of the lung. New Lippincott-Raven, New York.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Padley SPG, Adler B, Muller NL (1993) High- resolution computed tomography of the chest: current indications. J Thorac Imaging 8: 189–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Naidich DP, Zerhouni EA, Siegelman SS (1984) Computed tomography of the thorax. Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sperber M (1984) Computed tomography of the lungs: normal anatomy and most common dis-orders. Futura Publishing Co, New York.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Senac JP, Giron J (1987) Tomodensitometrie tho- racique. ed 2. Editions Axoue, Montpellier.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Marks BW, Kulus LR (1982) Identification of pleural fissures with computed tomography. Radiology 143: 139–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Goodman LR, Golkow RS, Steiner RM et al. (1981) The right mid-lung window. Radiology 5: 459–67.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Speekman JM, Gamsu G, Webb WR (1981) Alterations in CT mediastinal anatomy produced by an azygos lobe. AJR 137: 47–50.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Putman CE, Rothman SL, Littner MR (1977) Computerized tomography in pulmonary sarcoido-sis. Comput tomogr 1: 197–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Elbert J, Kreel L (1980) The role of computed tomography in the initial staging and subsequent management of the lymphomas. J Comput Assist Tomogr 9: 368–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Pugatch RD, Faling LJ, Robbins AH et al. (1978) Differentiation of pleural and parenchymal lesions using computed tomography. J Comput Assist Tomogr 2: 601–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Katz D, Kreel L (1979) Computed tomography in pulmonary asbestosis. Clin Radiol 30: 207–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sperber M, Mohan K (1984) Computerized tomog-raphy: a reliable diagnostic modality in pulmonary asbestosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 8: 125–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Williford ME, Hidalgo H, Putman CE etal. (1983) Computed tomography of pleural disease. AJR 140: 909–14.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Alexander E, Clark RA, Colley DP etal. (1981) CT of malignant pleural mesothelioma. AJR 137: 287–91.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mirvis D, Dutcher JP, Haney PJ etal. (1983) CT of malignant pleural mesothelioma. AJR 140: 665–70.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Sperber M, Strankinga WFM, Kaiser M et al. (1987) Accuracy of diagnostic procedures in the initial evaluation and follow-up of mesothelioma patients. Respiration 1, 179–87.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Warren JB, Kreel L, Johnson N et al. (1982) Use of computed tomography to demonstrate the extent of tuberculosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6: 181–98.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Godwin JD, Muller NL, Tagasugi JE (1988) Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Radiology 169: 609.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kreel L (1982) Computed tomography of interstitial pulmonary disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr 6: 181–98.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rosenblum LJ, Mauceri RA, Wellenstein DE et al. (1980) Density patterns in normal lung as determned by computed tomography. Radiology 134: 409–16.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hedlund LW, Vock P, Effmann EL (1983) Evaluating lung density by computed tomography. Semin Resp Med 5 (1).Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Carr DH, Pride ND (1984) Computed tomography in preoperative assessment of bullous emphysema. Clin Radiol 35: 43–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sanders C, Nath PH, Bailey WC (1988) Detection of emphysema with computed tomography: correla-tion with pulmonary function tests and chest radiography. Invest Radiol 23: 262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Todo G, Itoh H, Nakamo Y et al. (1982) High resolution CT for the evaluation of pulmonary peripheral disorders. Jpn J Clin Radiol 27: 1319–26.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nakata H, Kimoto T, Nakayama T et al. (1985) Diffuse peripheral lung disease: evaluation by high- resolution computed tomography. Radiology 157: 181–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Naidich DP, Zerhouni EA, Hutchins GM et al. (1985) Computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma. Part 1: distal air-space disease. J Thorac Imaging 1: 39–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zerhouni EA, Naidich DP, Stitik FP et al. (1985) Computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma. Part 2: interstitial disease. J Thorac Imaging 1: 54–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mayo JR, Webb WR et al. (1987) High-resolution CT of the lungs: optimal approach. Radiology 163: 507–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Gamsu G, Klein J (1989) High-resolution CT of diffuse lung disease. Clin Radiol 40: 554–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Murata K, Khan A (1989) Pulmonary parenchymal disease: evaluation with high resolution CT. Radiology 170: 629–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Webb WR, Stein MG et al. (1988) Normal and diseased isolated lungs: high resolution CT. Radiology 166: 81–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Webb WR (1989) High resolution CT of the lung parenchyma. Radiol Clin North Am 27: 1085–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Padley SPG, Hansell DM et al. (1991) Comparative accuracy of high resolution computed tomography and chest radiography in the diagnosis of chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease. Clin Radiol. 44: 222–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Leung AN, Staples CA etal. (1991) Chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease: comparison of diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution and conventional CT. AJR 157: 693.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Noma S, Khan A et al. (1990) High-resolution computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma. Semin US CT MR 11: 365–79.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mayo JR (1991) High-resolution computed tomography: technical aspects. Radiol Clin North Am 29: 1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Maguire WM, Herman PG, Khan et al. (1993) Comparison of fixed and adjustable window width and level settings in the CT evaluation of diffuse lung disease. J Comput Assist Tomogr 17: 847–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Giraud F et al. (1993) Computed tomography assessment of ground-glass opacity: semiology and significance. J Thor Imaging 8: 249–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zwirewich CT, Terriff B, Muller NL (1989) High- spatial-frequency (bone) algorithm improves quality of standard CT of the thorax. AJR 153: 1169–73.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Mayo JR (1991) High resolution computed tomography: technical aspects. Radiol Clin North Am 29: 1043–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Grenier P, Cordeau MP, Beigelman C (1993) High- resolution computed tomography of the airways. J Thor Imaging 8: 213–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Swensen SJ, Aughenbaugh GL, Brown LR (1989) High-resolution computed tomography of the lung. Mayo Clin Proc 64: 1284–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Herold JC, Brown RH et al. (1991) Assessment of pulmonary airway reactivity with high-resolution CT. Radiology 181: 369–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Brauner MW, Grenier P et al. (1989) Pulmonary histiocytosis X: evaluation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 172: 255–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Naidich DP (1991) High-resolution computed tomography of cystic lung disease. Semin Roentgenol 26: 151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    More ADA, Godwin JD, Dietrich PA etal. (1992) Swyer-James syndrome: CT findings in eight patients. AJR 158: 1211–15.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Stern EJ, Webb WR (1993) Dynamic imaging of lung morphology with ultrafast high-resolution computed tomography. J Thor Imaging 8: 273–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stern EJ, Webb WR, Gamsu G (1994) Dynamic quantitative computed tomography: a predictor of pulmonary function in obstructive lung disease. Invest Radiol 29: 564–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Webb WR, Muller NL, Naidich DP (1996) High- resolution CT of the lung. Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Aberle DR, Gamsu G etal. (1988) High-resolution CT of benign asbestos-related diseases: clinical and radiographic correlation. AJR 151: 883–91.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Akira M, Yokoyama K et al. (1991) Early asbestosis: evaluation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 178: 409–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Heitzman ER, Markarian B, Berger I et al. (1969) The secondary pulmonary lobule: a practical concept for interpretation of radiographs. I. Roentgen anatomy of the normal secondary pulmonary lobule. Radiology 93: 508–13.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Weibel ER (1979) Looking into the lung: what can it tell us? AJR 133: 1021–31.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Raskin SP (1982) The pulmonary acinus: historical notes. Radiology 144: 31–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Bergin C, Roggli V, Coblentz C etal. (1988) The secondary pulmonary lobule: normal and abnormal CT appearance. AJR 151: 21–5.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Muller NL (1991) Clinical value of high-resolution CT in chronic diffuse lung disease. AJR 157: 1163.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Webb WR (1991) High-resolution lung computed tomography: normal anatomical and pathological findings. Radiol Clin North Am 29: 1051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Murata K, Itoh H, Todo G et al. (1986) Centrilobular lesions of the lung: demonstration by high-resolution CT and pathologic correlation. Radiology 161: 641–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gruden JF, Webb WR, Warnok M (1994) Centrilobular opacities in the lung on high-resolution CT: diagnostic considerations and pathologic correlation. AJR 162: 569–74.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Akira M, Higashihara T, Yokoyama et al. (1989) Radiographic type p pneumoconiosis: high- resolution CT. Radiology 171: 117–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Bergin CJ, Bell DY, Coblenz CL et al. (1989) Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests. Radiology 171: 619–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Young K, Aspestrand F, Kolbenstredt A (1991) High- resolution CT and bronchography in the assessment of bronchiectasis. Acta Radiol 32: 439–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Jonhok T, Ikezoe J, Tomiyama N etal. (1992) CT findings in lymphangitis carcinomatosis of the lung: correlation with histologic findings and pulmonary functin tests. AJR 158: 1217–22.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Muller NL, Kullnig P, Muller RR (1989) The CT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis: analysis of 25 patients. AJR 152: 1179–82.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Brauner MW, Grenier P et al. (1989) Pulmonary sar-coidosis: evaluation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 172: 467–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Nishimura K, Kitaichi M et al. (1992) Usual interstitial pneumonia: histologic correlation with high- resolution CT. Radiology 182: 337–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Muller NL (1991) Differential diagnosis of chronic diffuse infitrative lung disease on hih-resolution computed tomography. Semin Roentgenol 26: 132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Meziane MA (1992) High-resolution computed tomography scanning in the assessment of intersti-tial lung disease. J Thor Imaging 7: 3–13.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Stein MG, Mayo J, Muller N et al. (1987) Pulmonary lymphangitic spread of carcinoma: appearance on CT scans. Radiology 162: 371–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Akira M, Kita N, Higashihara T, Sakatoni M (1992) Summer-type hypersensitivity pneumonitis: com-parison of high-resolution CT and plain radio-graphic findings. AJR 158: 1223–8.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Wallaert B et al. (1993) Pulmonary involvement in progressive systemic sclerosis: sequential evaluation with CT, pulmonary function tests, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Radiology 188: 499–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Hartman TE, Primack SL, Swensen SJ et al. (1993) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: thin-section CT findings in 22 patients. Radiology 187: 787–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stern E, Webb WR et al. (1992) Cystic lung disease associated with eosinophilic granuloma and tuberous sclerosis: air trapping at dynamic ultrafast high resolution CT. Radiology 182: 325–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Hruban RH, Meziane MA et al. (1987) High-resolution computed tomography of infiltrative fixed lungs: pathologic-radiologic correlation of centrilobular emphysema. Am Rev Resp Dis 136: 935–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Santis G, Hodson ME etal. (1991) High-resolution computed tomography in adult cystic fibrosis patients with mild lung disease. Clin Radiol 44: 20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Swensen SJ, Aughenbaugh GL etal. (1992) High- resolution CT of the lungs: findings in various pulmonary diseases. AJR 158: 971.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Bessis L, Callard P, Gotheil et al. (1992) High- resolution CT of parenchymal lung disease: precise correlation with histologic findings. Radiographics 12: 45–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Muller NL, Ostrow DN (1991) High-resolution computed tomography of chronic interstitial lung disease. Clin Chest Med 12: 1, 97–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Deffentaines C et al. (1991) Assessment of diffuse infiltrative lung disease: com-parison of conventional CT and high-resolution CT. Radiology 181: 157–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Remy-Jardin M, Giraud F, Remy J et al. (1993) Inportance of ground-glass infiltrative lung disease: pathologic-CT correlation. 189: 693–8.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Leung An, Miller RR, Muller NL (1993) Parenchymal opacification in chronic infiltrative lung diseases: CT- pathologic correlation. Radiology 188: 209–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Zompatori M, Rimondi MR (1994) Diffuse ground- glass opacity of the lung. A guide to interpreting the high-resolution computed tomographic picture (HRCT). Radiol Med 88: 576–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Zwirewich CV, Mayo JR, Muller NL et al. (1991) Low-dose high-resolution CT of lung parenchyma. Radiology 180: 413–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Naidich DP, Marshall CH, Gribbin C et al. (1990) Low-dose CT of the lungs: preliminary observations. Radiology 175: 729–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Murata K, Khan A, Rojas K et al. (1988) Optimization of computed tomography technique to demonstrate the fine structure of the lung. Invest Radiol 23: 170–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Soo Lee K, Primack S, Staples C (1994) Chronic infiltrative lung disease: comparison of diagnostic accuracies of radiography and low- and conventional- dose thin-section CT. Radiology 191: 669–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Bruik JA, Heiken JP, Wang G et al. (1994) Spiral (helical) CT: principles and technical considerations. Radiographics 14: 887–93.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Bruik JA (1995) Technical aspects of helical (spiral) CT. Radiol Clin North Am 33: 834.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Giraud F et al. (1995) Pulmonary nodules: detection with thick-section spiral CT versus conventional CT. Radiology 187: 513–20.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Costello P, Anderson W, Blume D (1991) Pulmonary nodule: evaluation with spiral volumetric CT. Radiology 179: 875–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Goodman LR, Curtin JJ, Mewissen MW etal. (1995) Detection of pulmonary embolism in patients with unresolved clinical and scintigraphic diagnosis: helical CT versus angiography. AJR 164: 1369–74.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Senac JP, Verhnet H, Bousquet C et al. (1995) Embolie pulmonaire: apport de la tomodensitométrie hélicoidale. J Radiol 76: 339–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Kuriyama K, Tateishi R, Kumatani et al. (1994) Pleural invasion by peripheral bronchogenic carcinoma: assessment with three-dimensional helical CT. Radiology 191: 365–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Paranjpe DV, Bergui CJ (1996) Spiral CT of the lungs: optimal technique and resolution compared with conventional CT. AJR 162: 561–7.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Artaud D et al. (1996) Diffuse infiltrative lung disease: clinical value of sliding-thin-slab maximum intensity projection CT scans in the detection of mild micronodular pattern. Radiology 200: 333–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Remy-Jardin M, Remy J, Gosselin B etal. (1996) Sliding-thin-slab, minimum intensity projection technique in the diagnosis of emphysema: histopathologic-CT correlation. Radiology 200: 665–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Engeler CE, Tashjian JH, Engeler CM etal. (1994) Volumetric high-resolution CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease and bronchiectasis: diagnostic accuracy and radiation dose. AJR 163: 31–5.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Touliopoulos P, Costello P (1995) Helical (spiral) CT of the thorax. Radiol Clin North Am 33: 5, 843–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kaneko M, Eguchi K, Ohmatsu H et al. (1996) Peripheral lung cancer: screening and detection with low-dose spiral CT versus radiography. Radiology 201: 3, 798–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Wehrli FW, MacFall JR, Newton TH (1983) Parameters determining the appearance of NMR images. In: Newton TH, Potts DG, eds. Modern neurology, vol 2. Clavadel Press, San Anselmo, pp. 81–117.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Cohen AM (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Radiol Clin North Am 22: 829–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Gamsu G, Sotsman D (1989) State of the art. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 254–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Young IR, Burl M, Bydder GM (1986) Comparative efficiency of different pulse sequences in MR imaging. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10: 271–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Aronberg DJ, Glazer HS, Sagel SS (1985) MRI and CT of the mediastinum: comparisons, controversies and pitfalls. Radiol Clin North Am 23: 439–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Cohen MD, Scales RL, Eigen H et al. (1987) Evaluation of pulmonary parenchymal disease by magnetic resonance imaging. Br J Radiol 60: 223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Craig DA, Colletti PM, Ratto D et al. (1988) MRI findings in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Magn Reson Imag 6: 567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Cuttilo AG, Morris AH, Ailion DC etal. (1988) Quantitative assessment of pulmonary edema by nuclear magnetic resonance methods. J Thorac Imag 3: 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Moore EH, Webb WR, Muller N etal. (1986) MRI of pulmonary airspace disease: experimental model and preliminary clinical results. AJR 146: 1123–8.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Skalina S, Kundel HL, Wolf et al. (1984) The effect of pulmonary edema on proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation times. Invest Radiol 19: 7–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Huber DJ, Kobzik L, Melanson G et al. (1985) The detection of inflammation in collapsed lung by alternations in proton nuclear magnetic relaxation times. Invest Radiol 20: 460–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Schmidt HC, Tsay DG, Higgins CB (1986) Pulmonary edema, an MRI study of hydrostatic and permeability types. Radiology 158: 297–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Muller NL, Mayo JR, Zwirewich CV (1992) Value of MR imaging in the evaluation of chronic infiltrative lung diseases: comparison with CT. AJR 158: 1205–9.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Hayes CE, Case TA, Ailon DC et al. (1982) Lung water quantitation by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Science 216: 1313–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Cutillo AG, Morris AH, Glatter DD et al. (1984) Determination of lung water content and distribution by nuclear magnetic resonance. J App Physiol 57: 583–8.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    MacLennon FM, Foster MA, Smith FW et al. (1986) Measurement of total lung water from nuclear magnetic resonance images. Br J Radiol 59: 553–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Brash RC, Gooding CA, Zallemand DP et al. (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of the thorax in child-hood. Radiology 150: 453–64.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Huber A, Henck A, Behr J et al. (1997) MR imaging in the assessment of disease activity in diffuse interstitial lung disease. Presentation at the European Congress of Radiology, Vienna, June 1997.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kersjes W, Hildebrand G, Cagil H et al. (1997) Differentiation of alveolitis and pulmonary fibrosis in rabbits with MR imaging after intrabronchial administration of bleomycin. Presentation at the European Congress of Radiology, Vienna, June 1997.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam Sperber

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations