Pulmonary Angiitis and Granulomatosis

  • Koichi Nishimura
  • Harumi Itoh
  • Sonoko Nagai
  • Masanori Kitaichi
  • Takateru Izumi


Sarcoidosis is characterized pathologically by non-caseating epithelioid cell granulomas in multiple organs; however, its etiology remains unknown. Although intrathoracic lesions are detected in almost all cases of sarcoidosis, pulmonary symptoms infrequently lead to the detection of patients. Sarcoidosis is more often found by chest radiographs, which are obtained during medical checkups, or because of symptoms of the skin and eyes. Extrathoracic lesions which cause certain symptoms are often detected in the eyes, the skin, the central nerves and the peripheral nerves. Although granulomatous lesions are histologically known to frequently form in the liver, lesions in the liver rarely cause symptoms.


Granulomatous Lesion Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis Nodular Opacity Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Chang CH, Zinn TW (1976) Roentgen recognition of enlarged hilar lymph nodes: An anatomical review. Radiology 120: 291–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McLeod RA, Brown LR, Miller WE et al. (1976) Evaluation of the pulmonary hila by tomography. Radiol Clin North Am 14: 51–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Winterbauer RH, Belie N, Moores KD (1973) A clin-ical interpretation of bilateral hilar adenopathy. Ann Intern Med 78: 65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sharma OP, Ratto D (1986) Pulmonary sarcoidosis: radiographic features. Clinics in Dermatology 4: 96–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Müller NL, Miller RR (1990) Computed tomography of chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease. Part 1 Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1206–15.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Müller NL, Miller RR (1990) Computed tomography of chronic diffuse infiltrative lung disease. Part 2 Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1440–6.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hansell DM, Kerr IH (1991) The role of high- resolution computed tomography in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease. Thorax 46: 77–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Webb WR, Müller NL, Naidich DP (1996) High- resolution CT of the lung, 2nd edn Lippincott- Raven Publishers, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maña J, Teirstein AS, Mendelson DS et al. (1995) Excessive thoracic computed tomographic scanning in sarcoidosis. Thorax 50: 1264–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Solomon A, Kreel L, McNicol M et al. (1979) Computed tomography in pulmonary sarcoidosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 754–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Stiris MG, Borthwick R (1981) Computed tomography (CT) evaluation in pulmonary sarcoidosis. Europ J Radiol 1: 16–19.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamper UM, Fishman EK, Khouri NF et al. (1986) Typical and atypical CT manifestations of pulmonary sarcoidosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 10: 928–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nishimura K, Izumi T, Kitaichi M et al. (1987) X-ray CT evaluation of pulmonary involvements of sar-coidosis. Jap J Thorac Dis 25: 888–95.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Müller NL, Mawson JB, Mathieson JR et al. (1989) Sarcoidosis: correlation of extent of disease at CT with clinical, functional, and radiographic findings. Radiology 171: 613–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Müller NL, Kullning P, Miller RR (1989) The CT findings of pulmonary sarcoidosis: analysis of 25 patients. AJR 152: 1179–82.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bergin CJ, Bell DY, Coblentz CL et al. (1989) Sarcoidosis: correlation of pulmonary parenchymal pattern at CT with results of pulmonary function tests. Radiology 171: 619–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brauner MW, Grenier P, Mompoint D et al. (1989) Pulmonary sarcoidosis: evaluation with high- resolution CT. Radiology 172: 467–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lynch DA, Webb WR, Gamsu G et al. (1989) Computed tomography in pulmonary sarcoidosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13: 405–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kuhlman JE, Fishman EK, Hamper UM et al. (1989) The computed tomographic spectrum of thoracic sarcoidosis. RadioGraphics 9: 449–66.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brauner MW, Lenoir S, Grenier P et al. (1992) Pulmonary sarcoidosis: CT assessment of lesion reversibility. Radiology 182: 349–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hansell DM (1992) High resolution computed tomography in sarcoidosis and extrinsic allergic alveolitis: imaging insights. Sarcoidosis 9: 21–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nishimura K, Itoh H, Kitaichi M et al. (1993) Pulmonary sarcoidosis: correlation of CT and histopathologic findings. Radiology 189: 105–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Nishimura K, Itoh H, Kitaichi M etal. (1995) CT and pathologic correlation of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Semin Ultrasound, CT, MRI 16: 361–70.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kitaichi M (1986) Pathology of pulmonary sar-coidosis. Clin Dermatol 4: 108–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lacronique J, Bernaudin JF, Soler P et al. (1981) Alveolitis and granulomas: sequential course in pul-monary sarcoidosis. In: Chretien J, Marsac J, Saltiel JC, eds. Sarcoidosis and other granulomatous disorders, Pergamon Press, Paris, pp 36–42.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Murata K, Khan A, Herman PG (1989) Pulmonary parenchymal disease: evaluation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 170: 629–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Noma S, Khan A, Herman PG etal. (1990) High-resolution computed tomography of the pulmonary parenchyma. Semin Ultrasound, CT, MRI 11: 365–79.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stein MG, Mayo J, Müller NL et al. (1987) Pulmonary lymphangitic spread of carcinoma: appearance on CT scans. Radiology 162: 371–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Münk PL, Müller NL, Miller RR et al. (1988) Pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis: CT and pathologic findings. Radiology 166: 705–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sharma OP, Hewlett R, Gordonson J (1973) Nodular sarcoidosis: An unusual radiographic appearance. Chest 64: 189–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Romer FK (1977) Sarcoidosis with large nodular lesions simulatong pulmonary metastases. An analysis of 126 cases of intrathoracic sarcoidosis. Scand J Resp Dis 58: 11–16.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Battesti JP, Saumon G, Valeyre D et al. (1982) Pulmonary sarcoidosis with an alveolar radiographic pattern. Thorax 37: 448–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rockoff SD, Rohatgi PK (1985) Unusual manifesta-tions of thoracic sarcoidosis. AJR 144: 513–28.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Tazi A, Desfemmes-Baleyte T, Soler P et al. (1994) Pulmonary sarcoidosis with a diffuse ground glass pattern on the chest radiograph. Thorax 49: 793–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lueng AN, Miller RR, Müller NL (1993) Parenchymal opacification in chronic infiltrative lung disease: CT- pathologic correlation. Radiology 188: 209–14.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Müller NL, Miller RR (1993) Ground-glass attenuation, nodules, alveolitis, and sarcoid granulomas. Radiology 189: 31–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Murdoch J, Müller NL (1992) Pulmonary sarcoidosis: changes on follow-up CT examination. AJR 159: 473–7.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Nishimura K, Kitaichi M, Izumi T et al. (1992) Usual interstitial pneumonia: histologic correlation with high-resolution CT. Radiology 182: 337–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hiraga Y, Yamamoto M, Tachibana T et al. (1981) Pulmonary fibrosis in severe pulmonary sarcoidosis. In: Mikami R, Hosoda Y, eds. Sarcoidosis, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 291–300.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Udwadia ZF, Pilling JR, Jenkins PF et al. (1990) Bronchoscopic and bronchographic findings in 12 patients with sarcoidosis and severe or progressive airways obstruction. Thorax 45: 272–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lenique F, Brauner MW, Grenier P et al. (1995) CT assessment of bronchi in sarcoidosis: endoscopic and pathologic correlations. Radiology 194: 419–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Torrington CKG, Shorr CAF, Parker MJW (1997) Endobronchial disease and racial differences in pul-monary sarcoidosis. Chest 111: 619–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Line BR, Hunninghake GW, Keogh BA et al. (1981) Gallium-67 scanning to stage the alveolitis of sar-coidosis: correlation with clinical studies, pulmonary function studies, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 440–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sulavik SB, Spencer RP, Palestro CJ et al. (1993) Specificity and sensitivity of distinctive chest radio-graphic and/or 67Ga images in the noninvasive diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Chest 103: 403–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Koerner SK, Sakowtiz AJ, Appelman RI et al. (1975) Transbronchial lung biopsy for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. New Engl J Med 293: 268–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rohatgi PK, Kuzmowych TV, Delaney MD (1981) Indications for thransbronchial lung biopsy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic sarcoidosis. Respiration 42: 155–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Izumi T (1986) Activity of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Clin Dermatol 4: 116–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Harkleroad LE, Young RL, Savage PJ et al. (1982) Pulmonary sarcoidosis. Long-term follow-up of the effects of steroid therapy. Chest 82: 84–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gibson GJ, Prescott RJ, Muers MF et al. (1996) British Thoracic Society Sarcoidosis study: effects of long term corticosteroid treatment. Thorax 51: 238–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gottlieb JE, Israel HL, Steiner RM et al. (1997) Outcome in sarcoidosis. The relationship of relapse to corticosteroid therapy. Chest 111: 623–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Johnson BA, Duncan SR, Ohori NP et al. (1993) Recurrence of sarcoidosis in pulmonary allograft recipients. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 1373–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kazerooni EA, Jackson C, Cascade PN (1994) Sarcoidosis: recurrence of primary disease in trans-planted lungs. Radiology 192: 461–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yeatman M, McNeil KK, Smith JA et al. (1996) Lung transplantation in patients with systemic diseases: an eleven-year experience at Papworth Hospital. J Heart Lung Transplant 15: 144–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    DeRemee RA, Weiland LH, McDonald TJ (1980) Respiratory vasculitis. Mayo Clin Proc 55: 492–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chandler DB, Fulmer JD (1985) Pulmonary vasculitis. Lung 163: 257–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Leavitt RY, Fauci AS (1986) Pulmonary vasculitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 134: 149–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Staples CA (1991) Pulmonary angiitis and granulo-matosis. Radiol Clin North Am 29: 973–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Dunnill MS (1991) Pulmonary granulomatosis and angiitis. Histopathology 19: 297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    DeRemee RA, McDonald TJ, Harrison EG et al. (1976) Wegener’s granulomatosis. Anatomic corre-lates, a proposed classification. Mayo Clin Proc 51: 777–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Katz P et al. (1983) Wegener’s granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience with 85 patients for 21 years. Ann Intern Med 98: 76–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Brandwein S, Esdaile J, Danoff D et al. (1983) Wegener’s granulomatosis. Clinical features and outcome in 13 patients. Arch Intern Med 143: 476–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Leavitt RY, Fauci AS, Bloch DA et al. (1990) The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 33: 1101–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Cordier JF, Valeyre D, Guillevin L et al. (1990) Pulmonary Wegener’s granulomatosis. A clinical and imaging study of 77 cases. Chest 97: 906–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Aberle DR, Gamsu G, Lynch D (1990) Thoracic manifestations of Wegener granulomatosis: diagnosis and course. Radiology 174: 703–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kuhlman JE, Hruban RH, Fishman EK (1991) Wegener granulomatosis: CT features of parenchymal lung disease. J Compt Assist Tomogr 15: 948–52.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Weir IH, Müller NL, Chiles C et al. (1992) Wegener’s granulomatosis: findings from computed tomography of the chest in 10 patients. Can Assoc Radiol J 43: 31–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Maskell GF, Lockwood CM, Flower CDR (1993) Computed tomography of the lung in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Clin Radiol 48: 377–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Provenzale JM, Allen NB (1996) Wegener granulomatosis: CT and MR findings. Am J Neuroradiol 17: 785–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lombard CM, Duncan SR, Rizk NW et al. (1990) The diagnosis of Wegener’s granulomatosis from transbronchial biopsy specimens. Hum Pathol 21: 838–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Daum TE, Specks U, Colby TV et al. (1995) Tracheobronchial involvement in Wegener’s granu-lomatosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151: 522–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    McDonald TJ, Neel III HB, DeRemee RA (1982) Wegener’s granulomatosis of the subglottis and the upper portion of the trachea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 91: 588–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bohlman ME, Ensor RE, Goldman SM (1984) Primary Wegener’s granulomatosis of the trachea: radiologic manifestations. Southern Med J 77: 1318–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McDonald TJ, DeRemee RA (1983) Wegener’s granulomatosis. Laryngoscope 93: 220–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    van der Wounde FJ, Rasmussen N, Lobatto S et al. (1985) Autoantibodies against neutrophils and monocytes: tool for diagnosis and marker of disease activity in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Lancet 1: 425–9.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Falk RJ, Jennette JC (1988) Anti-neutrophil cyto-plasmic autoantibodies with specificity for myeloperoxidase in in patients with systemic vasculitis and idiopathic necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephrits. N Engl J Med 318: 1651–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Baltaro RJ, Hoffman GS, Sechler JMG et al. (1991) Immunoglobulin G antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are produced in the respiratory tract of patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 275–8.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fienberg R, Mark EJ, Goodman M et al. (1993) Correlation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with the extrarenal histopathology of Wegener’s (pathergic) granulomatosis and related forms of vasculitis. Hum Pathol 24: 160–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gaudin PB, Askin FB, Falk RJ et al. (1995) The pathologic spectrum of pulmonary lesions in patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies specific for anti-proteinase 3 and anti- myeloperoxidase. Am J Clin Pathol 104: 7–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    ter Maaten JC, Franssen CFM, Gans ROB et al. (1996) Respiratory failure in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Chest 110: 357–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Mark EJ, Matsubara O, Tan-Liu NS et al. (1988) The pulmonary biopsy in the early diagnosis of Wegener’s (Pathergic) granulomatosis: a study based on 35 open lung biopsies. Hum Pathol 19: 1065–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grotz W, Mundinger A, Würtemberger G et al. (1994) Radiographic course of pulmonary menifestations in Wegener’s granulomatosis under immu-nosuppressive therapy. Chest 105: 509–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Sen RP, Walsh TE, Fisher W et al. (1991) Pulmonary complications of combination therapy with cyclophosphamide and prednisone. Chest 99: 143–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ognibene FP, Shelhamer JH, Hoffman GS et al. (1995) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a major complication of immunosuppressive therapy in patients with Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 151: 795–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB, Friedman PJ (1972) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Hum Pathol 3: 457–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Colby TV, Carrington CB (1982) Pulmonary lym-phomas simulating lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 19–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Weiss LM, Yousem SA, Warnke RA (1985) Non- Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the lung. A study of 19 cases emphasizing the utility of frozen section immunologic studies in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 480–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Gephardt GN, Tubbs RR, Liu AC et al. (1986) Pulmonary lymphoid neoplasms. Role of immuno- histology in the study of cellular immunotypes and in differential diagnosis. Chest 89: 545–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Glickstein M, Kornstein MJ, Pietra GG etal. (1986) Nonlymphomatous lymphoid disorders of the lung. AJR 147: 227–37.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cordier JF, Chailleux E, Lauque D et al. (1993) Primary pulmonary lymphomas. A clinical study of 70 cases in nonimmunocompromised patients. Chest 103: 201–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cruz JF, Gardia AG, Casas PE et al. (1993) Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders with affinity to lymphoma: a clinicopathoradiologic study of 16 cases. Eur Radiol 3: 106–14.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Bragg DG, Chor PJ, Murray KA etal. (1994) Lymphoproliferative disorders of the lung: histo-pathology, clinical manifestations, and imaging features. AJR 163: 273–81.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mittal K, Neri A, Feiner H et al. (1990) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence of Epstein- Barr virus infection and B-cell clonal selection without myc rearrangement. Cancer 65: 1345–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Katzenstein ALA, Peiper SC (1990) Detection of Epstein-Barr virus genomes in lymphomatoid granulomatosis: analysis of 29 cases by the polymerase chain reaction technique. Mod Pathol 3: 435–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Guinee D Jr, Jaffe E, Kingma D et al. (1994) Pulmonary lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Evidence for a proliferation of Epstein-Barr virus infected B-lymphocytes with a prominent T-cell component and vasculitis. Am J Surg Pathol 18: 753–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Myers JL, Kurtin PJ, Katzenstein ALA et al. (1995) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Evidence of immu- nophenotypic diversity and relationship to Epstein- Barr virus infection. Am J Surg Pathol 19: 1300–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nicholson AG, Wotherspoon AC, Diss TC et al. (1996) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: evidence that some cases represent Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoma. Histopathology 29: 317–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wilson WH, Kingma DW, Raffeid M et al. (1996) Association of lymphomatoid granulomatosis with Epstein-Barr viral infection of B lymphocytes and response to interferon-a 2b. Blood 87: 4531–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    McNiff JM, Cooper D, Howe G et al. (1996) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis of the skin and lung. An angiocentric T-cell-rich B-cell lymphopro- liferative disorder. Arch Dermatol 132: 1464–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Katzenstein ALA, Carrington CB, Liebow A A (1979) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: a clinicopathologic study of 152 cases. Cancer 43: 360–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dee PM, Arora NS, Innes DJ Jr (1982) The pul-monary manifestations of lymphomatoid granulo-matosis. Radiology 143: 613–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Edwards CW, Nyholm E, Chapman J (1982) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: report of a case. Thorax 37: 311–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Fauci AS, Haynes BF, Costa J et al. (1982) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: prospective clinical and therapeutic experience over 10 years. N Engl J Med 306: 68–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pisani RJ, DeRemee RA (1990) Clinical implications of the histopathologic diagnosis of pulmonary Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Mayo Clin Proc 65: 151–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Raez LE, Temple JD, Saldana M (1996) Successful treatment of lymphomatoid granulomatosis using cyclosporin-A after failure of intensive chemotherapy. Am J Hematol 53: 192–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Churg J, Strauss L (1951) Allergic granulomatosis, allergic angiitis, and periarteritis nodosa. Am J Pathol 27: 277–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Churg J (1963) Allergic granulomatosis and granulomatous-vascular syndromes. Ann Allergy 21: 619–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Chumbley LC, Harrison EG Jr, DeRemee RA (1977) Allergic granulomatosis and angiitis (Churg- Strauss syndrome): report and analysis of 30 cases. Mayo Clin Proc 52: 477–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lanham JG, Elkon KB, Pusey CD et al. (1984) Systemic vasculitis with asthma and eosinophilia: a clinical approach to the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Medicine 63: 65–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Buschman DL, Waldron JA Jr, King TE Jr (1990) Churg-Strauss pulmonary vasculitis. High- resolution computed tomography scanning and pathologic findings. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 458–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Olivieri D, Pesci A, Bertorelli G (1990) Eosinophilic alveolitis in immunologic interstitial lung disorders. Lung 168 Suppl: 964–73.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Churg A, Brallas M, Cronin SR et al. (1995) Formes frustes of Churg-Strauss syndrome. Chest 108: 320–3PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koichi Nishimura
  • Harumi Itoh
  • Sonoko Nagai
  • Masanori Kitaichi
  • Takateru Izumi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations