Advertisement

The Pathology of Diffuse Lung Disorders

  • Charles Kuhn

Abstract

The phrase ‘diffuse lung disease’ is often used to designate diseases producing bilateral widespread infiltrates in the lung as assessed radiographically or pathologically [1]. A glance at the contents of Part III of this book shows that the term is used herein in a more literal sense to encompass disorders that affect all regions of the lung, whether they primarily involve the airways, the acini or both. This chapter will review the pathologic responses of the conducting airways and gas-exchanging parenchyma.

Keywords

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Interstitial Pneumonia Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Diffuse Alveolar Damage 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lymphany PA, duBois RM (1987) Diffuse lung disease: product of genetic susceptibility and environmental encounters. Thorax 52: 92–94.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kuhn C, Pierce JA (1991) Lung repair in COPD. In: Cherniak NS, ed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 49–55.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hogg JC, Macklem PT, Thurlbeck WM (1968) Site and nature of airway obstruction in chronic obstructive lung disease. N Engl J Med 278: 1355–1360.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Jeffrey P (1991) Morphology of the airway wall in asthma and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 1152–1158.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ohashi Y, Motogima S, Fukuda T et al. (1992) Airway hyperresponsiveness increased intercellular spaces of bronchial epithelium and increased infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes in bronchial mucosa in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1469–1476.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Laitinen LA, Heino M, Laitinen A et al. (1985) Damage of the airway epithelium and bronchial re-activity in patients with asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 599–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Takizawa T, Thurlbeck WM (1971) Muscle and mucous gland size in the major bronchi of patients with chronic bronchitis, asthma and asthmatic bronchitis. Am Rev Resp Dis 104: 331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sobonya RE (1984) Quantitative structural alter-ations in longstanding allergic asthma. Am Rev Resp Dis 130: 289–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Azzawi M, Johnston PW, Majumdar et al. (1992) T-lymphocytes and activated eosinophils in airway mucosa in fatal asthma and cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 1477–1482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Robinson D, Homid Q, Ying S et al. (1992) Predominant TH2–like, bronchoalveolar T-lympho- cyte population in atopic asthma. N Engl J Med 326: 298–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barnes PJ, Baraniuk J, Belvisi MG (1991) Neuropeptides in the respiratory tract. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1187–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuwano K, Bosken CH, Pare PD et al. (1993) Small airway dimensions in asthma and in chronic ob-structive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 1220–1225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wiggs BR, Bosken CH, Pare PD et al. (1992) A model of airway narrowing in asthma and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 1251–1258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Whitwell F (1952) A study of the pathology and pathogenesis of bronchiectasis. Thorax 7: 213–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barker AF, Bardana EJ (1988) Bronchiectasis: Update of an orphan disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 137: 969–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mierau GW, Agostini R, Beals TF et al. (1992) The role of electron microscopy in evaluating ciliary dysfunction: report of a workshop. Ultrastruct Pathol 16: 245–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Davis PB, Drumm M, Konstan MW (1996) Cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154: 1229–1256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Al-Awqati Q (1995) Regulation of ion channels by ABC transporters that secrete ATP. Science 269: 805–806.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Higgins CF (1995) The ABC of channel regulation. Cell 82: 693–696.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ismailou IL, Awayda MS, Jovov B et al. (1996) Regulation of epithelial sodium channels by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. J Biol Chem 271: 4725–4732.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kopito RR (1997) ER quality control: the cytoplasmic connection. Cell 88: 427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Smith JJ, Travis SM, Greenberg EP et al. (1996) Cystic fibrosis airway epithelia fail to kill bacteria because of abnormal airway surface fluid. Cell 85: 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goldman MJ, Anderson GM, Stolzenberg ED et al. (1997) Human B-defensin is a salt sensitive antibiotic in lung that is inactivated in cystic fibrosis. Cell 88: 553–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Barasch J, Kiss B, Prince A et al. (1991) Defective acidification of intracellular organelles in cystic fibrosis. Nature 352: 70–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Debentzmann S, Roger P, Puchelle E (1996) Pseudomonas aeruginosa adherence to remodelling respiratory epithelia. Eur Respir J 9: 2145–2150.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bedard M, McClure CD, Schiller NL (1993) Release of interleukin 8, interleukin 6 and colony stimulating factor by upper airway epithelial cells. Implications for cystic fibrosis. Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol 9: 455–462.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Greenberger PA, Patterson R (1987) Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Model of bronchopulmonary disease with defined serologic, radiologic, pathologic and clinical findings from asthma to fatal destructive lung disease. Chest 91: 165S–170S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bosken C, Myers J, Greenberger P et al. (1988) Pathologic features of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Am J Surg Pathol 12: 216–222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Koss MN, Robinson RG, Hochlolzer L (1981) Bronchocentric granulomatosis. Human Pathol 12: 632–639.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wright SL, Cagle P, Churg A et al. (1992) Diseases of the small airways. Am Rev Respir Dis 146: 240–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Saetta M, Finkelstein M, Cosio MG (1994) Morphologic and cellular basis for airflow limitation in smokers. Eur Respir J 7: 1505–1515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hogg JC, Wright JL, Wiggs BR et al. (1994) Lung structure and function in cigarette smokers. Thorax 49: 473–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Thurlbeck WM (1991) Pathology chronic airflow obstruction. In: Cherniack NS, ed. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Silverman EK, Pierce JA, Province MA et al. (1989) Variability of pulmonary function in alpha-1–antit-rypsin deficiency: Clinical correlates. Ann Intern Med 111: 982–991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Matsuse T, Hayaski S, Kuwano K et al. (1992) Latent adenoviral infection in the pathogenesis of chronic airways obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 146: 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    King TE (1989) Bronchiolitis obliterans. Lung 167: 69–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Turton CW, Williams G, Green M (1981) Cryptogenic obliterative bronchiolitis in adults. Thorax 36: 805–810.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Carrington CB (1985) Follicular bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Human Pathol 16: 700–706.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kraft M, Mortenson RL, Colby TL et al. (1993) Cryptogenic constrictive bronchiolitis. A clinico- pathologic study. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 1093–1101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sugiyama Y (1993) Diffuse panbronchiolitis. Clin Chest Med 14 (4): 765–772.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Iwata M, Colby TV, Kitaichi M (1994) Diffuse pan-bronchiolitis. Diagnosis and distinction from various pulmonary diseases with centrilobular interstitial foam cell accumulations. Hum Pathol 25: 357–363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carlson BA, Swenson SJ, Edell ES et al. (1993) High resolution computed tomography for obliterative bronchilitis. Mayo Clin Proc 68: 307–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wilson TA, Bachofen H (1982) A model for mechanical structure of the alveolar duct. J Appl Physiol 52: 1064–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kuhn C (1996) Morphology of the aging lung. In: Crystal RG, West JB, Weibel ER, Barnes PJ, eds. The Lung. Scientific Foundations. 2nd ed. Lippincott-Raven, Philadelphia and New York, pp. 2187–2197.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Snider GL, Kleinerman J, Thurlbeck WM et al. (1985) The definition of emphysema. A report of a National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, Division of Lung Disease Workshop. Am Rev Respir Dis 132: 182–185.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Janoff A (1985) Elastases and emphysema. Current assessment of the protease-antiprotease hypothesis. Am Rev Respir Dis 132: 417–433.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Snider GL (1992) Emphysema: The first two centuries and beyond. A historical overview with suggestions for future research. Am Rev Respir Dis 146:1334–1344 and 1615–1622.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Erikson S (1989) Alpha-antitrypsin deficiency: Lesson learned from the bedside to the gene and back again. Chest 95: 181–189.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Weitz JL, Silverman EK, Thong B et al. (1991) Plasma levels of elastase-specific fibrinopeptides correlate with protease inhibitor phenotype. J Clin Invest 88: 766–773.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Tetley TD (1997) Matrix metalloproteinases: a role in emphysema? Thorax 52: 495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Finlay GA, Russell KJ, McMahon KS et al. (1997) Elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinases in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of emphysematous pa-tients. Thorax 52: 502–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Evans MD, Pryor WA (1994) Cigarette smoking, emphysema, and damage to alpha (l)-proteinase in-hibitor. Am J Physiol 226: L593–L611.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Hogg JC (1992) Chronic interstitial disease of unknown cause. A new classification based on pathogenesis. AJR 156: 225–233.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tomashefski JR (1990) Pulmonary pathology of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Clin Chest Med 11: 593–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Bertozzi P, Astedt B, Zenius L et al. (1990) Depressed bronchoalveolar urokinase activity in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 322: 890–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Idell S, James KK, Levin EG et al. (1989) Local ab-normalities in coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways predispose to alveolar fibrin deposition in the adult respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest 84: 695–705.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Eitzman DT, McCoy RD, Zheng X et al. (1996) Bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in transgenic mice that either lack or overexpress the murine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene. J Clin Invest 97: 232–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yano T, Deterding RR, Simonet WS et al. (1996) Keratinocyte growth factor reduces lung damage due to acid instillation in rats. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 15: 433–442.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Askin FB (1990) Back to the future: The Hamman- Rich Syndrome and acute interstitial pneumonia. Mayo Clin Proc 65: 1624–1626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Olson J, Colby TV, Elliott CG (1990) Hamman-Rich Syndrome revisited. Mayo Clin Proc 65: 1538–1548.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Colby TV (1992) Pathologic aspects of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Chest 102 Suppl: 38S–43S.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kitaichi M (1992) Differential diagnosis of bronchi-olitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. Chest 102 Suppl: 44S–49S.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Davidson AG, Heard BE, McAllister WAC et al. (1983) Cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis. Quart. J Med 52: 383–394.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Epler GR, Colby TV, McLoud TC et al. (1985) Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. N Engl I Med 312: 152–158.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Belloma R, Finlay M, McLaughlin P et al. (1991) Clinical spectrum of cryptogenic organizing pneu-monitis. Thorax 46: 554–558.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Katzenstein ALA (1993) Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: classification and diagnosis. In: Churg A, Katzenstein ALA, eds. The lung. Current concepts. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp. 1–31.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Corrin B, Dewar A, Rodriquez et al. (1985) Fine structural changes in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis and asbestosis. J Pathol 147: 107–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Myers JL, Katzenstein ALA (1988) Epithelial necrosis and alveolar collapse in the pathogenesis of usual interstitial pneumonia. Chest 94: 1309–1311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Burkhardt A (1986) Pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Human Pathol 17: 971–973.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Basset F, Ferrans VS, Soler et al. (1986) Intraluminal fibrosis in interstitial lung disorders. Am J Pathol 122: 443–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kuhn C, Boldt J, King TE et al. (1989) An immuno-histochemical study of architectural remodeling and connective tissue synthesis in pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 1693–1703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hubbard R, Lewis S, Richards K et al. (1996) Occupational exposure to metal or wood dust and etiology of cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Lancet 347: 284–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Egan JJ, Woodcock AA, Stewart JP (1997) Viruses and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Eur Respir J 10: 1433–1437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    duBois RM (1991) Recent advances in the immunology of interstitial lung disease. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 9–16.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kradin RL, Divertie MB, Colvin RB et al. (1986) Usual interstitial pneumonitis is a T-cell alveolitis. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 40: 224–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Campbell DA, Poulter LW, Janossy G et al. (1985) Immunohistological analaysis of lung tissue from patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis suggesting local expression of immune hypersensitivity. Thorax 40: 405–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kallenberg CGM, Schilizzi BM, Beaumont F et al. (1987) Expression of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on alveolar epithelium in interstitial lung disease: relevance to pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. J Clin Pathol 40: 725–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wallace WAH, Schofield JA, Lamb D et al. (1994) Localization of a pulmonary autoantigen in cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Thorax 49: 1139–1145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wallace WAH, Roberts SN, Caldwell H et al. (1994) Circulating antibodies to lung proteins in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Thorax 49: 218–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gauldie J, Jordana M, Cox G (1993) Cytokines and pulmonary fibrosis. Thorax 48: 931–935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Suganuma H, Soto A, Tamura R et al. (1995) Enhanced migration of fibroblasts derived from lungs with fibrotic lesions. Thorax 50: 987–989.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Torry DJ, Richards CD, Podor TS et al. (1994) Anchorage-independent colony growth of pulmonary fibroblasts derived from fibrotic human lung tissue. J Clin Invest 93: 1525–1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Liebow AA, Steer A, Billingsley JG (1965) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Am J Med 39: 369–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Carrington CB, Gaensler EA, Coutu RE et al. (1978) Natural history and treated course of usual and desquamative interstitial pneumonia. N Engl J Med 298: 801–809.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hartman TE, Primack SL, Swenson SJ et al. (1993) Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: Thin-section CT findings in 22 patients. Radiology 187: 787–790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Katzenstein ALA, Fiorelli RF (1994) Non-specific in-terstitial pneumonia/fibrosis. Histologic features and clinical significance. Am J Surg Pathol 18: 136–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Mitchell DN, Scadding JG (1974) State of the art. Sarcoidosis 110: 774–802.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Almenoff PL, Johnson A, Lesser M et al. (1996) Growth of acid fast L-forms from the blood of patients with sarcoidosis. Thorax 51: 530–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kon OM, duBois RM (1997) Mycobacteria and sar-coidosis. Thorax 52 (Suppl 3): 547–553.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mitchell IC, Turk SL, Mitchell DN (1992) Detection of mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis with liquid phase hybridization. Lancet 339: 1015–1017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Saboor SA, Johnson NM, McFadden J (1992) Detection of mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis and tuberculosis with polymerase chain reaction. Lancet 339: 1012–1015.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Popper HH, Winter E, Hofler G (1994) DNA of my- cobacterium tuberculosis and sarcoidosis detected by polymerase chain reaction. Am J Clin Pathol 101: 738–741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ghussein RA, Ross DG, Salomon RN et al. (1994) A search for mycobacterial DNA in sarcoidosis using the polymerase chain reaction. Am J Clin Pathol 101: 733–737.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hsu RM, Connors AF, Tomashefski JF (1996) Histologic, microbiologic and clinical correlates of the diagnosis of sarcoidosis by transbronchial biopsy. Arch Pathol Lab Med 120: 364–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kaltreider HB (1993) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. West J Med 159: 570–578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Keller RH, Calvanico NJ, Stevens JO (1982) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in nonhuman primates. Studies on the relationship of immunoregu- lation and disease activity. J Immunol 128: 116–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Reyes CN, Wenzel FS, Lawton BR et al. (1982) The pulmonary pathology of farmer’s lung disease. Chest 81: 142–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hammar S (1988) Hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Pathol Annual 23: 193–215.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Sneller MC (1995) Wegener’s granulomatosis. JAMA 273: 1288–1291.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    DeRemee RA, McDonald TS, Harrison EG etal. (1976) Wegener’s granulomatosis: anatomic correlates, a proposed classification. Mayo Clin Proc 51: 777–781.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gephardt GN, Shah LF, Tubbs RR et al. (1990) Wegener’s granulomatosis. Immunomicroscopic and ultrastructural study of four cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med 114: 961–965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Schultz DR, Tozman EC (1995) Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies with major antigens, patho-physiology and disease associations. Semin Arthritis Rheum 25: 143–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Colby TV, Specks U (1993) Wegener’s granulomatosis in the 1990s. A pulmonary pathologists perspec-tive. In: Churg A, Katzenstein ALA, eds. The lung. Current concepts. Williams and Wilkins Co., Baltimore, pp. 195–218.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Travis WD, Hoffman GS, Leavitt RY etal. (1991) Surgical pathology of the lung in Wegener’s granu-lomatosis. Review of 87 open lung biopsies from 67 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 15:315–333.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yousem SA (1991) Bronchocentric injury in Wegener’s granulomatosis. Human Pathol 22: 535–540.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Yousem SA (1988) The eosinophilic variant of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Human Pathol 19: 682–688.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Uner AH, Rozum-Sloter B, Katzenstein ALA (1996) Bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia (BOOP)-like variant of Wegener’s granulomatosis. A clinicopathologic study of 16 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 20: 794–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Lanham JG, Elkon KB, Pusey CD et al. (1984) Systemic vasculitis with asthma and eosinophilia: a clinical approach to the Churg-Strauss syndrome. Medicine 63: 65–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Koss MN, Antonovych T, Hockholzer L (1981) Allergic granulomatosis (Churg-Strauss syndrome): pulmonary and renal morphologic findings. Am J Surg Pathol 5: 21–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Carrington CB (1985) Lung biopsy in rheumatoid arthiritis. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 770–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Allen SA, Davis WB (1994) Eosinophilic lung dis-eases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150: 1423–1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Liebow AA, Carrington CB (1969) The eosinophilic pneumonias. Medicine 48: 251–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bartier T, Irwin RS, Nash G et al. (1989) Idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans-organizing pneumonia with peripheral infiltrates on chest roentgenogram. Arch Intern Med 149: 273–279.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bodesch DB, King TE, Schwartz MI (1989) Acute eosinophilic pneumonia: a hypersensitivity phe-nomenon? Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 249–252.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pope-Harman RL, Davis WB, Allen ED et al. (1996) Acute eosinophilic pneumonia. A summary of 15 cases and review of the literature. Medicine 75: 334–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Carrington CB, Addington WW, Goff AM et al. (1969) Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. N Engl J Med 180: 786–798.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jederlinc PJ, Sicilian L, Gaensler EA (1988) Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. A report of 19 cases and a review of the literature. Medicine 67: 154–162.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ottesen EA, Nutman TB (1992) Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia. Ann Rev Med 43: 417–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Udwadia FE (1993) Tropical eosinophilia: a review. Respir Med 87: 17–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Robbins RA, Linder J, Stahl MG et al. (1989) Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage in autologous bone marrow transplant recipients. Am J Med 87: 511–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chao N, Duncan SR, Long GD et al. (1991) Corticosteroid therapy for diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in autologous bone marrow transplant recipients. Ann Intern Med 114: 145–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Travis WD, Colby TV, Lombard C et al. (1990) A clinicopathologic study of 34 cases of diffuse pul-monary hemorrhage with lung biopsy confirmation. Am J Surg Pathol 14: 1112–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Green RJ, Ruoss SJ, Kraft SA etal. (1996) Pulmonary capillaritis and alveolar hemorrhage. Update on diagnosis and management. Chest 110:1305–1316.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Mark EJ, Ramirez JF (1985) Pulmonary capillaritis and hemorrhage with systemic vasculitis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 109: 413–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Travis WD, Carpenter HA, Lie ST (1987) Diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. An uncommon manifestation of Wegener’s granulomatosis. Am J Surg Pathol 11: 702–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lombard CM, Colby TV, Elliott CG (1989) Surgical pathology of the lung in antibasement-membrane antibody-associated Goodpasture’s Syndrome. Human Pathol 20: 445–451.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kelly PT, Hapovik EF (1994) Goodpasture’s syn-drome: Molecular and clinical advances. Medicine 73: 171–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hellmark T, Johansson C, Wieslander J (1994) Characterization of anti GBM antibodies involved in Goodpasture’s syndrome. Kidney International 46: 823–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Blanco A, Solis P, Gomez S et al. (1994) Anti neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies in idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. Pediat Allergy Immunol 5: 235–239.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Rosen SH, Castleman B, Liebow AA (1958) Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. N Eng J Med 258: 1123–1142.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kuhn C, Gyorkey F, Levine BE et al. (1966) Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Lab Investigation 15: 492–509.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Godwin JD, Muller NL, Takasugi JE (1988) Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: CT findings. Radiology 169: 609–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Buechner HA, Ansari A (1969) Acute silicopro- teinosis. A new pathologic variant of acute silicosis in sandblasters characterized by histologic features resembling alveolar proteinosis. Dis Chest 44: 274–284.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Bedrossian CMW, Luna MA, Conklin RH et al. (1980) Alveolar proteinosis as a consequence of im-munosuppression. A hypothesis based on clinical and pathologic observations. Human Pathol 11: 527–534.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Ruben FL, Talamo TS (1986) Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis occurring in two patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med 80: 1187–1190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Singh G, Katyal SL, Bedrossian CMW et al. (1983) Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis: staining for surfactant apoprotein in alveolar proteinosis and in conditions simulating it. Chest 83: 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Nogee LM, deMello DE, Dehner LP et al. (1993) Deficiency of pulmonary surfactant protein B in congenital alveolar proteinosis. N Engl J Med 328: 406–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Nogee LM, Gamier G, Dietz HC et al. (1994) A mutation in the surfactant protein B gene responsible for fatal neonatal respiratory disease in multiple kindreds. J Clin Invest 93: 1860–1863.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Heppleston AG, Fletcher K, Wyatt I (1974) Changes in the composition of lung lipids and the turnover of dipalmitoyl lecithin in experimental alveolar lipo-proteinosis induced by inhalation of quartz. Br J Exp Pathol 55: 384–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Ikegami M, Ueda T, Hull W et al. (1996) Surfactant metabolism in transgenic mice after granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor ablation. Am J Physiol 270 (Lung Cell Mol Physiol 14): L650–L658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Witty LA, Tapson VF, Piantadosi CA (1994) Isolation of mycobacteria in patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Medicine 73: 103–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Golde DW, Territo M, Finley TN et al. (1976) Defective lung macrophages in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Ann Intern Med 85: 304–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Conger JD, Hammond WS, Alfrey AC et al. (1975) Pulmonary calcification in chronic dialysis patients. Clinical and pathologic studies. Ann Intern Med 83: 330–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Grames GM, Sauser DD, Jansen C etal. (1974) Radionucleide detection of diffuse interstitial pul-monary calcification. JAMA 230: 992–995.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Popelka CG, Kleinerman J (1977) Diffuse pulmonary ossification. Arch Intern Med 137: 523–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Sears MR, Chang AF, Taylor AJ (1971) Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Thorax 26: 704–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Prakash LB, Barham SS, Rosenow EC et al. (1983) Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. A review including ultrastructural and pulmonary function studies. Mayo Clin Proc 58: 290–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chen KTK (1989) Amyloidosis presenting in the respiratory tract. Pathol Ann 24 pt 1: 253–274.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Utz JP, Swenson SJ, Gertz MA (1996) Pulmonary amyloidosis: The Mayo Clinic experience from 1980–1993. Ann Intern Med 124: 407–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Kizner CH, Yousem SA (1988) Systemic light chain deposition disease presenting as multiple pulmonary nodules. Am J Surg Pathol 12: 405–413.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Askin FB (1990) Pulmonary disorders in the collagen vascular diseases. Human Pathol 21: 465–466.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Wiedeman HP, Matthay RA (1989) Pulmonary manifestations of the collagen vascular diseases. Clin Chest Med 10: 677–721.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Faurschou P, Francis D, Fuarup P (1985) Thoracoscopic, histological and clinical findings in nine cases of rheumatoid pleural effusion. Thorax 40: 371–375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Anaya JM, Diethelm L, Ortiz AC et al. (1995) Pulmonary involvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum 25: 242–254.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Shadick NA, Fanta CH, Weinblatt ME et al. (1994) Bronchiectasis a late feature of severe rheumatoid arthritis. Medicine 73: 161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Geddes DM, Corrin B, Brewerton DA et al. (1977) Progressive airway obliteration in adults and its as-sociation with rheumatoid disease. Quart J Med 46: 427–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Hakala M, Paakko P, Huhti E et al. (1990) Open lung biopsy of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 9: 452–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Segal AM, Calabrese LN, Ahmad M et al. (1985) The pulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythe-matosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 14: 202–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Churg A, Franklin W, Chan KL et al. (1980) Pulmonary hemorrhage and immune-complex de-position in the lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104: 388.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Eagan J, Memoli VA, Roberts SL et al. (1978) Pulmonary hemorrhage and systemic lupus erythe-matosus. Medicine 57: 545–560.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Matthay RA, Schwartz MI, Petty TL et al. (1974) Pulmonary manifestations of systemic lupus erythe-matosus: review of twelve cases of acute lupus pneumonitis. Medicine 54: 397–409.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Inoue T, Kanayama Y, Ohe A et al. (1979) Immunopathologic studies of pneumonitis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Intern Med 91: 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Nair SS, Askari AD, Popelka CG et al. (1980) Pulmonary hypertension and systemic lupus ery- thematosis. Arch Intern Med 140: 109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    McCarthy DS, Baragar FD, Dhingra S et al. (1988) The lungs in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): a review and new information. Semin Arthritis Rheum 17: 271–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Papiris SA, Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Maniati MA et al. (1997) Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary fibrosis in diffuse systemic sclerosis: two fibroses with different prognoses. Respiration 64: 81–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Yousem SA (1990) The pulmonary pathologic manifestations of the CREST Syndrome. Human Pathol 21: 467–474.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ungerer RG, Tashkin DP, Fust D et al. (1983) Prevalence and clinical correlates of pulmonary arterial hypertension in progressive systemic sclerosis. Am J Med 75: 65–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Tazelaar HD, Viggiano RW, Pickersgill J et al. (1990) Interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 727–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Strimlan CV, Rosenow EC, Divertie MD et al. (1976) Pulmonary manifestations of Sjogren’s syndrome. Chest 70: 354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Deheinzelin D, Capelozzi VL, Kairalla RA et al. (1996) Interstitial lung disease in primary Sjogren’s syndrome. Clinical-pathological evaluation and re-sponse to treatment. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154: 794–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    McCurley TL, Collins RD, Ball E et al. (1990) Nodal and extranodal lymphoproliferative disorders in Sjogren’s syndrome: a clinical and immunopathologic study. Human Pathol 21: 482–492.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Hansen LA, Prakosh BS, Colby TV (1989) Pulmonary lymphoma in Sjogren’s syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc 64: 920–931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Rosenow E, Myers J, Swenson S et al. (1992) Drug- induced pulmonary disease. An update. Chest 102: 239–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Myers JL (1993) Diagnosis of drug reactions in the lung. In: Churg A, Katzenstein A, eds. The lung. Current concepts. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, pp. 32–53.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Heard BE, Cooke RA (1968) Busulfan lung. Thorax 23: 187–193.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    O’Driscoll BR, Hasleton PS, Taylor PM et al. (1990) Active lung fibrosis up to 17 years after chemotherapy with carmustine (BCNU) in childhood. N Engl J Med 323: 378–382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Barrera P (1994) Methotrexate-related pulmonary complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Am Rheum Dis 53: 434–439.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Martin WJ, Rosenow EC (1988) Amiodarone pul-monary toxicity. Recognition and pathogenesis. Chest 93:1067–1075, 1242–1246.Google Scholar
  179. 179.
    Movsas B, Raffin TA, Epstein AH et al. (1997) Pulmonary radiation injury. Chest 111: 1061–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Warren S, Spencer J (1940) Radiation reaction in the lung. Am J Roentgenol 43: 692–701.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Jennings FL, Arden A (1962) Development of radia-tion pneumonitis: time and dose factors. Arch Path 74: 351–360.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Boyle JY, Nesme P, Bejui-Thivolet F et al. (1995) Migratory organizing pneumonitis ‘primed’ by ra-diation therapy. Eur Respir J 8: 322–326.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Crestani B, Kambouchner M, Soler P et al. (1995) Migratory bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia after unilateral radiation therapy breast carcinoma. Eur Respir J 8: 318–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Roberts CM, Foulcher E, Zaunders JJ et al. (1993) Radiation pneumonitis: A possible lymphocyte- mediated hypersensitivity reaction. Ann Intern Med 118: 696–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Morgan GW, Breit SN (1995) Radiation and the lung: A réévaluation of the mechanisms pulmonary injury. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Physics 31: 361–369.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Craighead JE, ed. (1995) Pathology of environmental and occupational disease. Moseby-Yearbook, St Louis.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Churg A, Green FY (1988) Pathology of occupational lung disease. Igaku-Shoin, New York.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Green FY, Laqueur WA (1980) Coalworkers pneu-moconiosis. Pathol Annu 15 (pt 2): 333–410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Davis JMG, Chapman J, Collings P et al. (1983) Variation in the histological patterns of the lesions of coal workers pneumoconiosis in Britain and their relationship to lung dust content. Am Rev Respir Dis 128: 118–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Craighead JE, Kleinerman J, Abraham J et al. (1988) Diseases associated with exposure to silica and non- fibrous silicate minerals. Arch Pathol Lab Med 112: 673–720.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Cowie RL, Hay M, Thomas RG (1993) Association of silicosis, lung dysfunction and emphysema in gold miners. Thorax 48: 746–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Ng TP, Chan SL (1991) Factors associated with massive fibrosis in silicosis. Thorax 46: 229–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Craighead JE, Abraham J, Churg A et al. (1982) The pathology of asbestos associated diseases of the lungs and pleural cavities: Diagnostic criteria and proposed grading schema. Arch Pathol Lab Med 106: 544–596.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Mossman BT, Gee JBL (1989) Asbestos-related dis-eases. N Engl J Med 320: 1721–1730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Churg A, Wright JL (1983) Small airways disease and mineral dust exposure. Pathol Annu 18 (pt 2): 233–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Wright JL, Churg A (1984) Morphology of small airway lesions in patients with asbestos exposure. Human Pathol 15: 68–75.Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Churg A (1993) Asbestos, asbestosis and lung cancer. Mod Pathol 6: 509–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Roggli VL, Hammar SP, Pratt PC et al. (1994) Does asbestos or asbestosis cause carcinoma of the lung? Am J Indust Med 26: 835–838.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Abraham JL (1994) Asbestos inhalation, not as-bestosis causes lung cancer. Am J Indust Med 26: 839–842.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Wilkinson P, Hansell DM, Janssens J et al. (1995) Is lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure when there are no small opacities on the chest radiograph? Lancet 345: 1074–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Freiman DG, Hardy HL (1970) Beryllium disease. The relationship of pulmonary pathology to course and prognosis based on a study of 130 cases from the US beryllium case registry. Human Pathol 1: 25–44.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Kriebel D, Brain JD, Sprince NL et al. (1988) The pulmonary toxicity of beryllium. Am Rev Respir Dis 137: 464–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Cugell DW (1992) The hard metal diseases. Clin Chest Med 13: 269–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Davison AG, Haslam PL, Corrin B et al. (1983) Interstitial lung disease and asthma in hard-metal workers: bronchoalveolar lavage, ultrastructural, and analytical findings and results of bronchial provocation tests. Thorax 38: 119–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Demedts M, Gheysens B, Nagels J et al. (1984) Cobalt lung in diamond polishers. Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 130–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Gheysen B, Auwerx J, Van den Eekhout A (1985) Cobalt-induced bronchial asthma in diamond pol-ishers. Chest 88: 740–744.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Wright-Brown V, McClain KL, Talpaz M et al. (1997) Physiology and pathophysiology of dendritic cells. Human Pathol 28: 563–579.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Soler P, Moreau A, Basset et al. (1989) Cigarette smoking induced changes in the number and dif-ferentiated state of pulmonary dendritic cells/ Langerhans cells. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 1112–1117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Egeler RM, Angio GJ (1995) Langerhans cell histiocytosis. J Pediat 127: 1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Basset F, Corrin B, Spencer H et al. (1978) Pulmonary histiocytosis x. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 811–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Yu RC, Chu C, Buluwela L et al. (1994) Clonal prolif-eration of Langerhans cells in Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Lancet 343: 767–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Willman CL, Busque L, Griffith BB et al. (1994) Langerhans-cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis-x) a clonal proliferative disease. N Engl J Med 331: 154–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Soler P, Kambouchner M, Valeyre D et al. (1992) Pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis (histio-cytosis-x). Annu Rev Med 43: 105–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Auld D (1957) Pathology of eosinophilic granuloma of the lung. Arch Pathol 63: 113–131.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Travis WD, Borok Z, Roum JH et al. (1993) Pulmonary Langerhans cell granulomatosis (histiocytosis-x). A clinicopathologic study of 48 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 17: 971–986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Corrin B, Liebow AA, Friedman PJ (1975) Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. A review. Am J Pathol 79: 347.Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    Carrington CB, Cugell DW, Gaensler EA et al. (1977) Lymphangiomyomatosis. Physiologic pathologie-radiologie correlations. Am Rev Respir Dis 116: 977–995.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Bonetti F, Chiodera PL, Pea M et al. (1995) Transbronchial biopsy in lymphangiomyomatosis of the lung. HMB 45 for diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 17: 1092–1102.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Templeton PA, McLoud TC, Muller NL et al. (1989) Pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis: CT and pathologic findings. J Comput Assist Tomogr 13: 54–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Taylor JR, Ryu J, Colby TV et al. (1990) Lymph-angiomyomatosis. Clinical course in 32 patients. N Eng J Med 323: 1254–1260.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    O’Brien JD, Lium JH (1995) Lymphangioleio-myomatosis recurrence in the allograft after simple lung transplantation. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 151: 2033–2036.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Yousem SA, Colby TV, Carrington CB (1985) Follicular bronchitis/bronchiolitis. Human Pathol 16: 700–706.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Kradin R, Mark E (1985) Benign lymphoid disorders of the lung with a theory regarding their development. Human Pathol 14: 857–867.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Koss M, Hochholzer L, Nichols P et al. (1983) Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and pseudolym- phoma of the lung. A study of 61 patients. Human Pathol 14: 1024–1038.Google Scholar
  225. 225.
    Thompson GP, Utz JP, Rosenow EC et al. (1993) Pulmonary lymphoproliferative disorders. Mayo Clin Proc 68: 804–817.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Travis WD, Fox CH, Devaney KO et al. (1992) Lymphoid pneumonitis in 50 adult patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus: lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis versus nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis. Human Pathol 23: 529–541.Google Scholar
  227. 227.
    Oldham SAA, Castillo M, Jacobson FL et al. (1989) HIV-associated lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia: radiologic manifestations and pathologic correlation. Radiology 170: 83–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Itescu S, Brancato LJ, Buxbaum J et al. (1990) A diffuse infiltrative CD8 lymphocytosis syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection: a host immune response associated with HLA DR5. Ann Intern Med 112: 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kaan PM, Hegele RG, Hayashi S et al. (1997) Expression of bcl-2 and Esptein-Barr virus LMP1 in lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Thorax 52: 12–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Li G, Hansmann NL, Zwinger T et al. (1990) Primary lymphomas of the lung: morphological, immunohistochemical and clinical features. Histopathol 16: 519–531.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Fiche M, Capron F, Berger F et al. (1995) Primary pulmonary non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Histo- pathology 26: 529–537.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Myers JL (1990) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis: past, present,… future? Mayo Clin Proc 65: 274–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Guinee D, Jaffe E, Kingman D et al. (1994) Lymphomatoid granulomatosis. Evidence for a pro-liferation of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B lymphocytes with a prominent T cell component and vasculitis. Am J Surg Pathol 18: 753–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Dail DH, Liebow AA, Gmelich JT et al. (1983) Intra-vascular, bronchiolar and alveolar tumor of the lung (IVBAT). An analysis of twenty cases of a peculiar sclerosing endothelial tumor. Cancer 51: 452–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Clayton FC (1988) The spectrum and significance of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. Pathol Annu 23: 361–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Barkley JE, Green MR (1996) Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. J Clin Oncol 14: 2377–2386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Aguayo SM, Miller YE, Waldron JA et al. (1992) Idiopathic diffuse hyperplasia of pulmonary neu-roendocrine cells and airways disease. N Engl J Med 327: 1285–1298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Sheerin N, Harrison NK, Sheppard MN et al. (1995) Obliterative bronchiolitis caused by multiple tu- morlets and microcarcinoids successfully treated by single lung transplantation. Thorax 50: 207–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Stein MG, Mayo J, Muller N et al. (1987) Pulmonary lymphangiitic spread of carcinoma: appearance on CT scans. Radiol 162: 371–375.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Charles Kuhn

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations