Examination of the Fetus and the Neonatal Autopsy

  • Colin L. Berry

Abstract

In many pathology departments products of conception are not examined in detail and sections are taken only to confirm pregnancy. Much information can be obtained from these specimens, which may be of value in genetic counselling or in the management of future pregnancies. In a study of 3472 spontaneous abortions Byrne et al. (1985) found that only 21% of the abortuses contained normal fetuses and 28% contained no fetal tissues; 16.4% of the fetuses over 10 mm long were malformed. Many of the “membrane only” cases had chromosomal anomalies. The occurrence of congenital heart disease, facial clefts, or neurospinal defects in embryos and early fetuses all have considerable predictive value in terms of the likely outcome of future pregnancies, and may help to ensure that screening techniques are used in individuals at risk.

Keywords

Formol Catheter Foam Polythene Syringe 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bagnall KM, Jones PRM, Harris PF (1975) Estimating the age of the human foetus from crown-rump measurements. Ann Hum Biol 2: 387PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barson AJ (ed) (1981) The perinatal postmortem. In: Laboratory investigation of fetal disease. Wright, Bristol, p 476.Google Scholar
  3. Bell JE (1979) Fused suprarenal glands in association with central nervous system defects in the first half of fetal life. J Pathol 127: 191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson PF, Fensom AH, Polani PE (1979) Prenatal diagnosis of metabolic errors. Lancet I: 161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergsma D (1979) Birth defects compendium, 2nd edn. Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  6. Berry CL (1980) The examination of embryonic and fetal material in diagnostic histopathology laboratories. J Clin Pathol 33: 317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Birkbeck JA, Billewicz WZ, Thomson AM (1975a) Human foetal measurements between 50 and 150 days of gestation, in relation to crown-heel length. Ann Hum Biol 2: 173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Birkbeck JA, Billewicz WZ, Thomson AM (1975b) Foetal growth from 50 to 150 days of gestation. Ann Hum Biol 2: 319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boyd JD, Hamilton WJ (1970) The human placenta. HefTer, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyd Patricia A, Scott A (1985) Quantitative structural studies on human placentas associated with pre-eclampsia, essential hypertension and intrauterine growth retardation. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 92: 721Google Scholar
  11. Boyd Patricia A, Scott A, Keeling Jean W (1986) Quantitative structural studies on placentas from pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Br J Obset Gynaecol 93: 31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Byrne J, Warburton D, Kline J, Blanc W, Stein Z (1985) Morphology of early fetal deaths and their chromosomal characteristics. Teratology 32: 297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Campbell S (1976) Fetal growth. In: Beardf RW, Nathanielsz PW (eds) Fetal physiology and medicine. Saunders, London, pp 271–301Google Scholar
  14. Doshi N, Surti U, Szulnan A (1983) Morphologic anomalies in triploid liveborn fetuses. Hum Pathol 14: 716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Fox H (1978) Pathology of the placenta. Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Granchrow D, Ornoy A (1979) Possible evidence for secondary degeneration of central nervous system in the etiology of anencephaly and brain dysraphia. A study in young human fetuses. Virchows Arch [Pathol Anat] 384: 285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grody WW, Gheng Lorna, Lewin KJ (1987) In-situ viral DNA hybridization in diagnostic surgical pathology. Hum Pathol 18: 535–543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gruenwald P, Lawrence KL (1968) A method of examining the brain of the newborn. Dev Med Child Neurol 10: 64PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gruenwald P, Minh HN (1960) Evaluation of body and organ weights in perinatal pathology. Am J Clin Pathol 34: 247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kraus BS, Jordan RE (1965) The human dentition before birth. Lea and Febiger, Philadeplhia, pp 107, 109, 127Google Scholar
  21. Larroche JC (1977) Developmental pathology of the neonate. Excerpta Medica, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  22. Logan WHG, Kronfeld R (1933) Development of the human jaws and surrounding structures from birth to the age of fifteen years. Am Dent Assoc 20: 379Google Scholar
  23. McBride M, Baillie J, Poland BJ (1984) Growth parameters in normal fetuses. Teratology 29: 185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nakamura Y, Yamamoto S, Tanaka S, Yano H, Nishimura G, Saito Y, Tanaka T, Tanimura A, Hirose Fujiko, Fukuda S, Shingu M, Hashimoto T (1985) Herpes simplex viral infection in human neonates: an immunohistochemical and electron microscopic study. Hum Pathol 16: 1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nãnagus JC (1925) A comparison of the growth of the body dimensions of anencephalic human fetuses with normal fetal growth as determined by graphic analysis and empirical formulae. Am J Anat 35: 455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nomata N (1964) Chronological study on the crown formation of the human deciduous dentition. Bull Tokyo Med Dent Univ 11: 55Google Scholar
  27. Patten B (1946) Human embryology. The Blakiston Co, Philadephia, p 184Google Scholar
  28. Rushton DI (1978) Simplified classification of spontaneous abortions. J Med Genet 15: 1PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Russel JGB (1981) Radiological assessment of age, retardation and death. In: Barson AJ (ed) Laboratory investigation of fetal disease. Wright, Bristol, pp 3–16Google Scholar
  30. Salmon MA, Lindenbaum RH (1978) Developmental defects and syndromes, HM & M Publishers, AylesburyGoogle Scholar
  31. Smith DW (1982) Recognisable patterns of human malformation. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  32. Streeter GL (1920) Weight, sitting height, head size, foot length and menstrual age of the human embryo. Carnegie Institute Contributions to Embryology 11: 143Google Scholar
  33. Tanimura T, Nelson T, Hollingsworth RR, Shepard TH (1971) Weight standards for organs from early human fetuses. Anat Rec 171: 227PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Theisen CT, Bodin JD, Svododa JA, Pettinelli MW (1979) Unusual muscle abnormalities associated with thalidomide treatment in a Rhesus monkey: a case report. Teratology 19: 313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Thomson AM, Billewicz WZ, Hytten FE (1969) The weight of the placenta in relation to birthweight. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Cwlth 76: 865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tynan MJ, Becker AE, Macartney FJ, Jimenez MQ, Shinebourne EA, Anderson RH (1979) Nomenclature and classification of congenital heart disease. Br Heart J 41: 544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Trolle D (1948) Age of foetus determined from its measures. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 27: 327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Usher R, McLean F (1969) Intrauterine growth of liveborn Caucasian infants at sea level: standards obtained from measurements in 7 dimensions of infants born between 25 and 44 weeks of gestation. J Pediatr 74: 901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wigglesworth JS (1984) Perinatal pathology. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  40. Wilson JG (1965) Methods for administrating agents and detecting malformations in experimental animals. In: Wilson JG, Warkany J (ed) Teratology—Principles and techniques. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin L. Berry

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations