Advertisement

Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Nonaccidental Injury

  • Jean W. Keeling

Abstract

In Great Britain, about half the deaths occurring in infants between the ages of 1 week and 2 years take place outside hospital, and for this reason might be termed unexpected. The majority are reported to have had no symptoms or only trivial common symptoms such as the majority of infants exhibit at some time with no serious sequelae. In a small proportion of these infants necropsy examination will reveal the cause of death, such as an undiagnosed congenital malformation, often of the cardiovascular system, or a serious acute infective illness, such as meningitis, where a fatal outcome is to be expected in a proportion of cases. In a further group of infants, perhaps a third of the total number, evidence of disease will be present but this will not be of sufficient severity or of a type to account for death. In the remainder no disease process is recognized, although the organs of some infants may have nonspecific histological abnormalities. In a small group there are no abnormal findings.

Keywords

Child Abuse Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Carotid Body Sudden Infant Unexpected Death 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

A. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

  1. Arias-Stella J (1969) Human carotid body at high altitudes. Am J Pathol 55: 82aGoogle Scholar
  2. Beckwith JB (1970) Introduction: Discussion of terminology. In: Bergman AB, Beckwith JB, Ray CG (eds) Sudden infant death syndrome. University of Washington Press, Washington DC, p 18Google Scholar
  3. Bodian M, Heslop B (1960) Sudden infant death syndrome. In: Siim J-C (ed) Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Paediatrics, Basel, 1956. Williams and Wilkins, Copenhagen, p 91Google Scholar
  4. Cameron AH, Asher P (1965) Cot deaths in Birmingham 1958–61.Med SciLaw 5: 187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carpenter RG (1965) Sudden death in twins. Rep Public Health. Med Subj 113: 51Google Scholar
  6. Carpenter RG (1972) Epidemiology. In: Camps FE, Carpenter RG (eds) Sudden and unexpected deaths in infancy. Wright, Bristol, p 7Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter RG, Emery JL (1977) Final results of a study of infants at risk of sudden death. Nature 268: 724PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carpenter RG, Gardner A, McWeeny PM, Emery JL (1977) Multistage scoring system for identifying infants at risk of unexpected death. Arch Dis Child 52: 606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carroll GJ (1974) Sudden deaths in infants. J Pediatr 45: 401Google Scholar
  10. Dinsdale F, Emery JL, Gadsdon DR (1977) The carotid body—aquantitative assessment in children. Histopathology 1: 179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Downham MAPS (1977)Newcastle survey of deaths in early childhood 1974/76, with special reference to sudden unexpected deaths. Arch Dis Child 52: 828Google Scholar
  12. Emery JL, Dinsdale F (1974) Increased incidence of lymphoreti-cular aggregates in lungs of children found unexpectedly dead. Arch Dis Child 49: 107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Emery JL, Dinsdale F (1978) Structure of peri-adrenal brown fat in childhood in both expected and cot deaths. Arch Dis Child 53: 154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fedrick J (1974) Sudden unexpected death in infants in the Oxford Record Linkage Area. Br J Prev Soc Med 28: 164 Fink BR, Beckwith JB (1980)Google Scholar
  15. Laryngeal mucous gland excess in victims of sudden infant death. Am J Dis Child 134: 144Google Scholar
  16. Froggatt P, Lynas MA, MacKenzie G (1971) Epidemiology of sudden unexpected death in infants (’cot death’) in Northern Ireland. Br J Prev Soc Med 25: 119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gadsdon DR, Emery JL (1976) Fatty change in perinatal and unexpected death. Arch Dis Child 51: 42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gunther M (1966) Cot deaths; anaphylastic reaction after intrauterine infection as another potential cause. Lancet 1: 912PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heaton JM (1972) The distribution of brown adipose tissue in the human. J Anat 112: 35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Houstek J, Benesova D, Holy J (1959) Sudden death among children of the Prague district 1956–58. Cask Pediatr 14: 590Google Scholar
  21. James TN (1968) Sudden death in babies: new observation in the heart. Am J Cardiol 22: 479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Johnson P, Robinson JS, Salisbury D (1972) The onset and control of breathing after birth in foetal and neonatal physiology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  23. Keeton BR, Southall E, Rutter N, Anderson RG, Shinebourne EA, Southall DP (1977) Cardiac conduction disorders in six infants with ‘near miss’ sudden infant deaths. Br Med 511: 600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kelly Dorothy H, Walker AM, Cahen Lucienne, Shannon DC (1980) Periodic breathing in siblings of sudden infant death syndrome victims. Pediatrics 66: 515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Kendeel SR, Ferris JAJ (1977) Apparent hypoxic changes in pulmonary arterioles and small arteries in infancy. J Clin Pathol 30: 481PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kukolich MK, Telsey A, Olt J, Motulsky AG (1977) Sudden infant death syndrome: normal QT interval on ECGs of relatives. Pediatrics 60: 51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Laidler P, Kay JM (1975) A quantitative morphological study of the carotid bodies of rats living at a simulated altitude of 4300 metres. J Pathol 117: 183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Maresch W (1961) Sudden death in childhood. Praxis 50: 804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Maron BJ, Fisher RS (1977) Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS): cardiac pathological observations in infants with SIDS. Am Heart J 93: 762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Maron BJ, Clark CE, Goldstein RE, Epstein SE (1976) Potential role of QT interval prolongation in sudden infant death syndrome. Circulation 54: 423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Milner AD, Saunders RA, Hopkin IE (1977) Apnoea induced by airflow obstruction. Arch Dis Child 52: 379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Naeye RL (1973) Pulmonary artery abnormalities in the sudden-infant-death syndrome. N Engl J Med 289: 1167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Naeye RL (1974) SIDS—evidence of antecedent chronic hypoxia and hypoxemia in SIDS 1974. In: Robinson RR (ed) Proceedings of the Frances E Camps International Symposium on Sudden and Unexpected Deaths in Infancy. Canadian Foundation for the Study of Infant Deaths, Toronto, p 1Google Scholar
  34. Naeye RL (1976) Brain-stem and adrenal abnormalities in the sudden-infant-death syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol 66: 526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Naeye RL (1977) Placental abnormalities in victims of the sudden infant death syndrome. Biol Neonate 32: 189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Richards IDG, Macintosh HT (1972) Confidential enquiry into 226 consecutive infant deaths. Arch Dis Child 47: 697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Selwyn S, Bain AD (1963) Deaths in childhood due to infection. Br JPrev Soc Med 19: 123Google Scholar
  38. Shannon DC, Kelly DH, O’Connell K (1977) Abnormal regulations of ventilation in infants at risk for sudden-infant-death syndrome. N Engl J Med 297: 747PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Southall DP, Orrell MJ, Talbot JF, Brinton RJ, Vulliamy DG, Johnson AM, Keeton BR, Anderson RH, Shinebourne EA (1977) Study of cardiac arrhythmias and other forms of conduction abnormality in newborn infants. Br Med J 11: 597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Steele R, Langworth JT (1966) The relationship of antenatal and postnatal factors to sudden unexpected death in infancy. Can Med Ass J 94: 1165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Steinschneider A (1972) Prolonged apnoea and the sudden infant death syndrome: clinical and laboratory observations. Pediatrics 50: 646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Takashima S. Armstrong D. Becker LE, Huber J (1978) Cerebral white matter lesions in sudden infant death syndrome. Pediatrics 62: 155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Teplitz C, Lim YC (1974) The diagnostic significance of diffuse brown adipose tissue (B.A.T.). Transformation of adult periadrenal fat: a morphologic indicator of severe chronic hypoxemia. Lab Invest 30: 390Google Scholar
  44. Valdes-Dapena M (1963) Sudden and unexpected death in infants. The scope of our ignorance. Pediatr Clin North Am 10: 693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Valdes-Dapena MA (1967) Sudden and unexpected death in infancy: A review of the world literature 1954–1966. Pediatrics 39: 123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Valdes-Dapena MA (1977) Sudden unexplained infant death, 1970 through 1975: An evolution in understanding. Pathol Annu 12: 117PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Valdes-Dapena MA (1980) Sudden infant death syndrome: A review of the medical literature 1974–1979. Pediatrics 66: 597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Woolley PV (1945) Mechanical suffocation during infancy. Relation to total problem of sudden death. J Pediatr 26: 572CrossRefGoogle Scholar

B. Nonaccidental Injury

  1. Arthur U, Moncrieff MW, Milburn W, Bayliss PS, Heath J (1976) Non-accidental injury in children: what we do in Derby. Br Med J i: 1363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caffey J (1946) Multiple fractures in the long bones of infants suffering from chronic subdural haematoma. Am J Roentgenol 56: 163Google Scholar
  3. Caffey J (1957) Some traumatic lesions in growing bones other than fractures and dislocations: clinical and radiological features. Br J Radiol 30: 225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cameron JM (1972) The battered baby syndrome. Practitioner 209: 302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron JM, Johnson HRM, Camps FE (1966) The battered child syndrome. Med Sci Law 6: 2PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Camps FE (1969) Injuries sustained by children from violence. In: Recent advances in forensic pathology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, chap. 6Google Scholar
  7. Cooper C (1975) The doctor’s dilemma—a paediatricians view. In: Franklin AW (ed) Concerning child abuse. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, p 21Google Scholar
  8. Gil DG (1969) Physical abuse of children. Findings and implications of a nationwide survey. Paediatrics 44: 857Google Scholar
  9. Griffiths D, Moynihan FJ (1963) Multiple epiphyseal injuries in babies (`Battered baby’ syndrome). Br Med J ii: 1558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Grubbauer HM, Schwarz R (1980) Peritoneal dialysis in alcohol intoxication in a child. Arch Toxicol (Berl) 43: 317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hall MH (1975) A view from the emergency and accident department. In: Franklin AW (ed) Concerning child abuse. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh London, p 7Google Scholar
  12. Keen JH, Lendrum J, Wolmon B (1975) Inflicted burns and scalds in children. Br Med J iv: 268Google Scholar
  13. Kempe CH (1971) Paediatric implications of the battered baby syndrome. Arch Dis Child 46: 28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kempe CH, Silverman FN, Steele BF, Droegemueller W, Silver HK (1962) The battered child syndrome. JAMA 181: 17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lauer B, Brock ET, Grossman M (1974) Battered child syndrome: review of 130 patients with controls. Paediatrics 54: 67Google Scholar
  16. Macauley RAA, Mason JK (1977) Violence in the home. In: Mason JK (ed) The pathology of violent injury. Arnold, London, p 218Google Scholar
  17. Mushin AS (1971) Ocular damage in the battered baby syndrome. Br Med J iii: 402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nixon J, Pearn J (1977) Non-accidental immersion in bath-water: another aspect of child abuse. Br Med J i: 271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Roberts IF, West RJ, Ogilvie D, Dillon MJ (1979) Malnutrition in infants receiving cult diets: a form of child abuse. Br Med J i: 296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rogers D, Tripp J, Bentovim A, Robinson A, Berry D, Goulding R (1976) Nonaccidental poisoning: an extended syndrome of child abuse. Br Med J i: 793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Silverman FN (1953) The roentgen manifestations of unrec- ognised skeletal trauma in infants. Am J Roentgenol 69: 413Google Scholar
  22. Simpson K (1973) Child abuse—the battered baby. In: Mant AK (ed) Modern trends in forensic medicine, vol 3. Butterworths, London Boston, Mass, chap. 2Google Scholar
  23. Sims BG, Grant JH, Cameron JM (1973) Bite marks in the `battered baby syndrome’. Med Sci Law 13: 207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith, SM, Hanson R (1974)134 battered children: a medical and psychological study. Br Med J ii: 666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Webb J, Cooper C, Jackson H, Kelvin I, Roycroft B, Wilson D (1973) Nonaccidental injury in children. Br Med J iv: 657Google Scholar
  26. West S (1888) Acute periosteal swellings in several young infants of the same family, probably rickety in nature. Br Med J i: 856Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean W. Keeling

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations