Advertisement

Zinc: The Functional Significance of Marginal Deficiency

  • Brittmarie Sandström
Part of the ILSI Human Nutrition Reviews book series (ILSI HUMAN)

Abstract

The major biochemical function of zinc is as a constituent of metalloenzymes. The first described was carbonic anhydrase in 1940, and since then more than 200 different zinc enzymes have been identified in plant and animal tissue. Alcohol dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase, DNA-polymerase, RNA-polymerase, alkaline phosphatase and carboxypeptidase are all zinc-metalloenzymes and examples can be found in each of the six major categories of enzymes. This means that zinc is involved in more or less every biochemical process in the body. In some of these enzymes zinc is present at the active site e.g., acting as an electron acceptor, in others and in non-enzyme proteins the function of zinc is structural as S—S bridges or cross-links between thiolates and imidazoles.

Keywords

Phytic Acid Zinc Absorption Zinc Deficiency Zinc Intake Plasma Zinc 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraham R, Campbell-Brown M, Haines AP, North WRS, Hainsworth V, McFadyen IR (1985) Diet during pregnancy in an Asian community in Britain — energy, protein, zinc, copper, fibre and calcium. Human Nutr Appl Nutr 39A: 23–35Google Scholar
  2. Aggett PJ, Crofton RW, Chapman M, Humphries WR, Mills CF (1983) Plasma leucocyte and tissue zinc concentrations in young zinc deficient pigs. Pediatr Res 17: 433–445Google Scholar
  3. Baer MJ, King JC (1984) Tissue zinc levels and zinc excretion during experimental zinc depletion in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 39: 556–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baer MT, King JC, Tamura T et al. (1985) Nitrogen utilization, enzyme activity, glucose intolerance and leucocyte chemotaxis in human experimental zinc depletion. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 1220–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bales CW, Steinman LC, Freeland-Graves JH, Stone JM, Young RK (1986) The effect of age on plasma zinc uptake and taste acuity. Am J Clin Nutr 44: 664–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Baly DL, Golub MS, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS (1984) Studies on marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. III. Effects on vitamin A metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 119–207Google Scholar
  7. Bettger WI, O’Dell BL (1981) A critical physiological role of zinc in the structure and function of biomembranes. Life Sci 28: 1425–1438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bogden JD, Oleske JM, Munves EM et al. (1987) Zinc and immunocompentence in the elderly: baseline data on zinc nutriture and immunity in unsupplemented subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 45: 101109Google Scholar
  9. Bogden JD, Oleske JM, Lavenhar MA et al. (1988) Zinc and immunocompentence in elderly people: effects of zinc supplementation for 3 months. Am J Clin Nutr 48: 655–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bremner I, Morrison JN, Wood AM, Arthur JR (1987) Effects of changes in dietary zinc, copper and selenium supply and of endotoxin administration on metallothionein I concentrations in blood cells and urine in the rat. J Nutr 117: 1595–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chesters JK (1989) Biochemistry of zinc in cell division and tissue growth. In: Mills CF (ed) Zinc in human biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 109–118Google Scholar
  12. Fickel JJ, Freeland-Graves JH, Roby MJ (1986) Zinc tolerance tests in zinc deficient and zinc supplemented diets. Am J Clin Nutr 43: 47–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fraker PJ, Jardieu P, Cook J (1987) Zinc deficiency and immune function. Arch Dermatol 123: 1699–1701PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Golub MS, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS, Baly DL, Hendrickx AG (1984a) Studies of marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. I. Influence on pregnant dams. Am J Clin Nutr 39: 265–280Google Scholar
  15. Golub MS, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS, Baly DL, Hendrickx AG (1984b) Studies of marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. II. Pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 39: 879–887Google Scholar
  16. Golub MS, Gershwin ME, Hurley LS, Hendrickx AG (1988) Studies of marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. VIII. Effects in early adolescence. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 1046–1051Google Scholar
  17. Hambidge KM, Krebs NF, Jacobs MA, Favier A, Guyette L, Ikle DN (1983) Zinc nutritional status during pregnancy: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr 37: 429–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Hess FM, King JC, Margen S (1977) Zinc excretion in young women on low zinc intakes and oral contraceptive agents. J Nutr 107: 1610–1620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hunt IF, Murphy NJ, Cleaver AE et al. (1983) Zinc supplementation during pregnancy: zinc concentration of serum and hair from low-income women of Mexican descent. Am Clin Nutr 37: 572–582Google Scholar
  20. Jackson MJ, Jones DA, Edwards RHT, Swainbank IG, Coleman ML (1984) Zinc homeostasis in man: studies using a new stable isotope-dilution technique. Br J Nutr 51: 199–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jackson MJ, Giugliano R, Giugliano LG, Oliveira EF, Shrimpton R, Swainbank IG (1988) Stable isotope metabolic studies of zinc nutrition in slum-dwelling lactating women in the Amazon valley. Br J Nutr 59: 193–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jameson S (1976) Effects of zinc deficiency in human reproduction. Acta Med Scand 593 [Suppl]: 1–89Google Scholar
  23. Krebs F, Hambidge KM, Walravens PA (1984) Increased food intake of young children receiving a zinc supplement. Am J Dis Child 138: 270–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Leek JC, Keen CL, Vogler JB et al. (1988) Long-term marginal zinc deprivation in rhesus monkeys. IV. Effects on skeletal growth and mineralization. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 889–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lönnerdal B, Cederblad A, Davidsson L, Sandström B (1984) The effect of individual components of soy formula and cow’s milk formula on zinc bioavailability. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 1064–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, Sandstead HH (1983) Effect of dietary zinc on whole body surface loss of zinc: impact on estimation of zinc retention by balance method. Am J Clin Nutr 38: 181–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Milne DB, Canfield WK, Gallagher SK, Hunt JR, Klevay LM (1987) Ethanol metabolism in postmenopausal women fed a diet marginal in zinc. Am J Clin Nutr 46: 688–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Moser PB, Reynolds RD (1983) Dietary zinc intake and zinc concentrations of plasma, erythrocytes, and breast milk in antepartum and postpartum lactating and nonlactating women: a longitudinal study. Am J Clin Nutr 38: 101–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Nävert B, Sandström B, Cederblad A (1985) Reduction of the phytate content of bran by leavening in bread and its effect on absorption of zinc in man. Br J Nutr 53: 47–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Paul AA, Southgate DAT (1978) McCance and Widdowson’s The composition of foods, 4th edn. Elsevier/North-Holland, Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, New York, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  31. Record IR, Record SJ, Dreosti IE, Rohan TE (1985) Dietary zinc intake of pre-menopausal women. Human Nutr Appl Nutr 39A: 363–369Google Scholar
  32. Sandstead HH, Henriksen LK, Greger JL, Prasad AS, Good RA (1982) Zinc nutriture in the elderly in relation to taste acuity, immune response, and wound healing. Am J Clin Nutr 36: 1046–1059PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Sandström B (1982) Zinc intake in Sweden. Näringsforskning 26: 163–164Google Scholar
  34. Sandström B (1989) Dietary pattern and zinc supply. In: Mills CF (ed) Zinc in human biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 351–363Google Scholar
  35. Sandström B, Cederblad A (1987) Effect of ascorbic acid on the absorption of zinc and calcium in man. Int J Vit Nutr Res 57: 87–90Google Scholar
  36. Sandström B, Lönnerdal B (1989) Promoters and antagonists of zinc absorption. In: Mills CF (ed) Zinc in human biology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 57–78Google Scholar
  37. Sandström B, Arvidsson B, Cederblad A, Björn-Rasmussen E (1980) Zinc absorption from composite meals. I. The significance of wheat extraction rate, zinc, calcium and protein content in meals based on bread. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 739–745Google Scholar
  38. Sandström B, Davidsson L, Cederblad A, Lönnerdal B (1985) Oral iron, dietary ligands and zinc absorption. J Nutr 115: 411–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Sandström B, Davidsson L, Lundell L, Olbe L (1987) Zinc status and dark adaptation in patients subjected to total gastrectomy: Effect of zinc supplementation. Human Nutr Clin Nutr 410: 235–242Google Scholar
  40. Sandström B, Almgren A, Kivistö B, Cederblad A (1989) Effect of protein level and protein source on zinc absorption in humans. J Nutr 19: 48–53Google Scholar
  41. Schroeder HA, Nason AP, Tipton IH, Balassa JJ (1967) Essential trace metals in man: Zinc. Relation to environmental cadmium. J Chron Dis 20: 079–210Google Scholar
  42. Swanson CA, King JC (1987) Zinc and pregnancy outcome. Am J Clin Nutr 46: 763–771PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Turnlund JR, Durkin N, Costa F, Margen S (1986) Stable isotope studies of zinc absorption and retention in young and elderly men. J Nutr 116: 1239–1247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Tuttle S, Aggett PJ, Campbell D, MacGillivray I (1985) Zinc and copper nutrition in human pregnancy: a longitudinal study in normal primigravidae and in primigravidae at risk of delivering a growth retarded baby. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 1032–1041PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Valberg LS, Flanagan PR, Chamberlain MJ (1984) Effects of iron, tin, and copper on zinc absorption in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 536–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Wada L, Turnlund JR, King JC (1985) Zinc utilization in young men fed adequate and low zinc intakes. J Nutr 115: 1345–1354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wada L, King C (1986) Effect of low zinc intakes on basal metabolic rate, thyroid hormones and protein utilization in adult men. J Nutr 116: 1045–1053PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Walravens PA, Hambidge KM (1976) Growth of infants fed a zinc supplemented formula. Am J Clin Nutr 29: 1114–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Walravens PA, Krebs NF, Hambidge KM (1983) Linear growth of low income preschool children receiving a zinc supplement. Am J Clin Nutr 38: 195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brittmarie Sandström

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations