Muscle Afferents and Parkinson’s Disease
It is clear that Hughlings Jackson was entirely familiar with Parkinson’s disease, although he wrote very little about it. He did, however, give us the essential idea that the tremor and rigidity are released symptoms resulting from the abnormal activity of the lower centres, rather than due to a direct action of the higher centres themselves. Let me quote what he said at a discussion meeting in 1888, when he was much more direct than in his more prepared writings. He stated, “I have submitted the hypothesis, that in paralysis agitans there is wasting of the cells of the middle motor centres ... such a process, a negative one, can cause only the negative symptom paralysis. But being at the same time a loss of control over the anterior horns, there is over activity”, which he saw as resulting from “the taking off of inhibition from the anterior horns” so causing, in his view, first tremor then rigidity (Jackson 1888).
KeywordsMuscle Spindle Anterior Horn Parkinsonian Patient Tendon Jerk Parkinsonian Rigidity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Berardalli A, Cowan J, Day BL, Dick JPR, Marsden CD, Rothwell JC (1984) Motor cortex excitability in Parkinson’s disease. J Physiol 353: 33Google Scholar
- Burke D, Hagbarth K-E, Wallin BG (1977) Reflex mechanisms in parkinsonian rigidity. Scand. J. Rehabil Med 9: 15–23Google Scholar
- Eklund G, Hagbarth K-E, Hagglund JV, Wallin EU (1982) The ‘late’ reflex responses to muscle stretch: the ‘resonance hypothesis’ versus the ‘long-loop hypothesis’. J Physiol (Lond) 326: 79–90Google Scholar
- Lee RG, Tatton WG (1978) Long loop reflexes in man: clinical applications. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Cerebral motor control in man: long loop mechanisms. Karger, Basel, pp 167–177Google Scholar
- Marsden CD, Merton PA, Morton HB (1976) Servo action in the human thumb. J Physiol (Lond) 257: 1–44Google Scholar
- Matthews PBC (1984) Evidence from the use of vibration that the human long-latency stretch reflex depends upon spindle secondary afferents. J Physiol (Lond) 348: 383–415Google Scholar
- Matthews PBC (1985) Human long-latency stretch reflexes — a new role for the secondary ending of the muscle spindle? In: Barnes WJP, Gladden MH (eds) Feedback and motor control in invertebrates and vertebrates. Croom Helm, London, pp 431–449Google Scholar