Screening for Prostate Cancer

  • Jocelyn Chamberlain
  • Jane Melia
Part of the Focus on Cancer book series (3292)


Prostate cancer is a large and increasing problem in the developed world. With around 11 000 new cases and 8 000 deaths each year in England and Wales it is the fourth commonest cancer in men (after lung, skin and large bowel) and the second commonest cause of cancer death (after lung cancer). It is primarily a disease of the elderly, with 73% of new cases, and 80% of prostate cancer deaths occurring in men over the age of 70 years.


Europe Cadmium Testosterone Radionuclide Expense 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adami H-0, Baron JA, Rothman KJ (1994) Ethics of a prostate cancer screening trial. Lancet 343:958–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Armbruster DA (1993) Prostate specific antigen: biochemistry, analytical methods and clinical application. Clin Chem 39:181–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carlsson P, Pedersen KV, Varenhorst E (1990) Costs and benefits of early detection of prostatic cancer. Health Policy 16:241–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carter BS, Carter HB, Isaacs JT (1990) Epidemiologic evidence regarding predisposing factors to prostate cancer. Prostate 16:187–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Carter BS, Beaty TH, Steinberg GD, Childs B, Walsh PC (1992) Mendelian inheritance of familial prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:3367–3371.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carter HB, Pearson JD, Metter EJ et al. (1992) Longitudinal evaluation of prostate-specific antigen. Levels in men with and without prostate disease. JAMA 267:2215–2220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Catalona WJ (1990) Patient selection for, results of, and impact on tumour resection of potency-sparing radical prostatectomy. Urol Clin North Am 17:819–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Catalona WJ, Smith DS, Ratdiffe TL et al. (1991) Measurement of prostate specific antigen in serum as a screening test for prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 324:1156–1161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chadwick DJ, Kemple T, Astley JP et al. (1991) Pilot study of screening for prostate cancer in general practice. Lancet 338:613–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chisholm GD (1981) Perspectives and prospects. In: Duncan W (ed) Recent results in cancer research. Prostate cancer. Springer, Berlin, pp 173–184.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chodak GW, Keller P, Schoenberg HW (1989) Assessment of screening for prostate cancer using the digital rectal examination. J Urol 141:1136–1138.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Coleman MP, Esteve J, Damiecki P et al. (1993) Trends in cancer incidence and mortality. IARC Sci Publ 121. IARC, Lyon.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cooner WH, Mosley BR, Rutherford CL et al. (1988) Clinical application of transrectal ultrasonography and prostate-specific antigen in the search for prostate cancer. J Urol 139:758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Faul P (1982) Experience with the German annual preventive check-up examination. In: Jacobi GH, Hohenfellner R (eds) Prostate cancer. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 57–70.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fleming C, Wasson JH, Albertsen PC, Barry MJ, Wennberg JE (1993) A decision analysis of alternative treatment strategies for clinically localized prostate cancer. JAMA 269:2650–2657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Franks LM (1954) Latent carcinoma of the prostate. J Pathol Bacteriol: 68:603–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Friedman GD, Hiath RA, Queensbury CP, Selby JV (1991) Case-control study of screening for prostatic cancer by digital rectal examinations. Lancet 337:1526–1529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Frohmuller H (1991) Screening for prostatic cancer. The German experience. Acta Oncol 30:269–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    George NJR (1988) Natural history of localised prostatic cancer managed by conservative therapy alone. Lancet i: 105–124.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gerber GS, Thompson IM, Trusted R, Chodak GW (1993) Disease-specific survival following routine prostate cancer screening by digital rectal examination. JAMA 269:61–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Greenwald P, Kramer B, Weed D (1993) Expanding horizons in breast and prostate cancer prevention and early detection. J Cancer Educ 8:91–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hanks GE (1991) Radiotherapy or surgery for prostate cancer. Acta Oncol 30:231–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hoare IA, Alexander RL (1991) A survey of the reference limits for prostate specific antigen in apparently healthy males age 40-86 years. Clin Chem 37:1054.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Johannson J-E, Adami H-O, Andersson S-O, Bergstrom R, Holmberg L, Krusemo UB (1992) High 10-year survival rate in patients with early untreated prostatic cancer. JAMA 267:2191–2196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kramer BS, Brown ML, Prorok PC, Potosky AL, Gohagen JK (1993) Prostate cancer screening: what we know and what we need to know. Ann Intern Med 119:914–923.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lange PH, Brawer MK (1989) Serun prostate specific antigen; its use in diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Urology 33 (Suppl):13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Leandri P, Rossignol G, Gautier J-R, Ramon J (1992) Radical retropubic prostatectomy: morbidity and quality of life. Experience with 620 consecutive cases. J Urol 149:883–887.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Lee F, Littrup PJ, Torp-Pederson ST et al. (1988) Comparison of transrectal US and digital rectal examination for screening. Radiology 168:389–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lineham WM (1992) Molecular genetics of tumour suppressor genes in prostate carcinoma: the challenge and the promise ahead. J Urol 147:808–809.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Littrup PJ, Goodman AC, Mettlin C (1993) The benefit and cost of prostate cancer early detection. CA 43:134–149.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lu-Yao GL, Greenberg ER (1994) Changes in prostate cancer incidence and treatment in USA. Lancet 343:251–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mettlin C, Lee F, Drago J, Murphy GP and Investigators of the American Cancer Society National Prostate Cancer Detection Project (1991) Findings on the detection of early prostate cancer in 2425 men. Cancer 67:2949–2958.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Miller AB (1991) Issues in screening for prostate cancer. In: Miller AB, Chamberlain J, Day NE, Hakama M, Prorok P (eds) Cancer screening. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 289–293.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Mueller EJ, Crain TW, Thompson IM, Rodiguez FR (1988) An evaluation of serial digital rectal examinations in screening for prostate cancer. J Urol 140:1445–1447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Muir CS, Nectoux J, Staszewski J (1991) The epidemiology of prostatic cancer. Geographical distribution and time-trends. Acta Oncol 30:133–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1993) Cancer statistics, 1987, Series MBI, No.20. HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Office of Population Censuses and Surveys (1993) Mortality statistics, 1992 Series DH2 No. 19. HMSO, London.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pedersen KV, Carlsson P, Varenhorst E, Lofman O, Berglund K (1990) Screening for carcinoma of the prostate by digital rectal examination in a randomly selected population. Br Med J 300:1041–1044.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Potosky AR, Kessler L, Gridley G, Brown CC, Horm JW (1990) Rise in prostatic cancer incidence associated with increased use of transurethral resection. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:1624–1627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Resnick MI (1992) Staging. J Urol 147:881–882.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rich AR (1935) On the frequency of occurrence of occult carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 33:215–223.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roetzheim RG, Herold AH (1992) Prostate cancer screening. Prim Care 3:637–649.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rooney C, Beral V, Maconochie N, Fraser P, Davies G (1993) Case-control study of prostatic cancer in employees of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. Br Med J 307:1391–1397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schmid H-P, McNeal JE, Stamey TA (1993) Observations on the doubling time of prostate cancer. Cancer 71:2031–2040.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schmidt JD, Mettlin C, Natarajan N et al. (1986) Trends in patterns of care of prostate cancer, 1973-1983: Results of surveys by the American College of Surgeons. J Urol 136:416–421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schroder FH (1993) Prostate cancer: to screen or not to screen? Br Med J 306:pp407–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Stamey TA, Kabalin JN, McNeal JE et al. (1989) Prostate specific antigen in the diagnosis and treatment of adeno-carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 141:1076–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Steinberg GD, Carter BS, Beaty TH, Childs B, Walsh PC (1990) Family history and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 17:337–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Terris MK, McNeal JE, Stamey TA (1992) Estimation of prostate cancer volume by transrectal ultrasound imaging. J Urol 147:855–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thompson IM, Rounder JB, Teague JL et al. (1987) Impact of routine screening for adenocarcinoma of the prostate on stage distribution. J Urol 137:424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vallancien G, Prapotnich D, Sibert L et al. (1989) Comparison of the efficacy of digital rectal examination and ultrasonography in the diagnosis of prostatic cancer. Eur Urol 16:321–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Waaler G, Ludvigsen TC, Stenwig AE (1990) Prognosis of incidental prostate cancer in Aust-Agder County, Norway. Eur Urol 18:179–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Watanabe H (1989) History and applications of transrectal sonography of the prostate. Urol Clin North Am 16:617–622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Whitemore AS, Keller JB, Betensky R (1991) Low-grade latent prostate cancer volume: predictor of clinical cancer incidence. J Natl Cancer Inst 83:1231–1235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wilson JM, Kemp IW, Stein GJ (1984) Do younger men have a poorer survival rate? Lancet 343:251–254.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yatani R, Chigusa I, Akazaki K, Stemmermann GN, Welsh RA, Correa P (1982) Geographic pathology of latent prostatic carcinoma. Int J Cancer 29: 611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jocelyn Chamberlain
  • Jane Melia

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations