PET Radiopharmaceuticals

  • Jean N. DaSilvaEmail author
  • Ana C. Valadiva
  • Ilias Mylonas
  • Tayebeh Hadizad
  • Robert A. deKemp
  • Rob S. B. Beanlands


Cardiac PET perfusion and viability imaging has gained considerable acceptance in the cardiology and imaging communities due to the efficiency of testing procedures and excellent image quality. These attributes are in part due to the radiopharmaceuticals available for Cardiac PET. Most PET radiopharmaceuticals have radioisotopes with shorter half-lives than those of SPECT tracers. This enables patient imaging protocols to provide rapid repeat testing such as rest followed quickly by stress imaging (25–40 min). The short half-lives can also reduce radiation exposure for some PET agents. However the very short half-life for some PET perfusion agents means that exercise imaging is generally not possible. This may change with availability of newer slightly longer half-life PET tracers.


Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Myocardial Blood Flow Cardiac Sarcoidosis SPECT Tracer Cardiac Sympathetic Innervation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Fowler JS, Wolf AP. Positron emission tomography and autoradiography principles and applications for the brain and heart. In: Phelps M, Mazziotta J, editors. Clinical cardiology. New York: Raven Press; 1986. p. 391–450.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Biersack H, Freeman L. Clinical nuclear medicine. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    IAEA. Cyclotron produced radionuclides: guidelines for setting up a facility. Vienna: IAEA; 2009. p. 213.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Herzog BA, Husmann L, Valenta I, Gaemperli O, Siegrist PT, Tay FM, Burkhard N, Wyss CA, Kaufmann PA. Long-term prognostic value of 13N-ammonia myocardial perfusion positron emission tomography added value of coronary flow reserve. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:150–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ziadi MC, Beanlands R, DeKemp R, Renaud J, Tee RE, Guo A, Williams K, Chow B, Ruddy TD, Hessian R, Garrard L, Davies RA, Etele J. Impaired mfr measured using Rb-82 predicts outcomes in patients with suspected ischemia. Circulation. 2009;120:S320.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Love WD, Burch GE. Influence of the rate of coronary plasma flow on the extraction of Rb86 from coronary blood. Circ Res. 1959;7:24–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lortie M, Beanlands RS, Yoshinaga K, Klein R, Dasilva JN, DeKemp RA. Quantification of myocardial blood flow with 82Rb dynamic pet imaging. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2007;34:1765–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    El Fakhri G, Kardan A, Sitek A, Dorbala S, Abi-Hatem N, Lahoud Y, Fischman A, Coughlan M, Yasuda T, Di Carli MF. Reproducibility and accuracy of quantitative myocardial blood flow assessment with (82)Rb pet: comparison with (13)N-ammonia pet. J Nucl Med. 2009;50:1062–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klein R, Renaud JM, Ziadi MC, Thorn SL, Adler A, Beanlands RS, deKemp RA. Intra- and inter-operator repeatability of myocardial blood flow and myocardial flow reserve measurements using rubidium-82 pet and a highly automated analysis program. J Nucl Cardiol. 2010;17:600–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Di Carli MF, Hachamovitch R. New technology for noninvasive evaluation of coronary artery disease. Circulation. 2007;115:1464–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sampson UK, Dorbala S, Limaye A, Kwong R, Di Carli MF. Diagnostic accuracy of rubidium-82 myocardial perfusion imaging with hybrid positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the detection of coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49:1052–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schelbert H. Quantifying myocardial perfusion for the assessment of preclinical cad. In: Cardiac PET and PET/CT. New York: Springer; 2007. p. 166–77.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Takala T, Nuutila P, Katoh C, Luotolahti M, Bergman J, Maki M, Oikonen V, Ruotsalainen U, Gronroos T, Haaparanta M, Kapanen J, Knuuti J. Myocardial blood flow, oxygen consumption and fatty acid uptake in endurance athletes during insulin stimulation. Am J Physiol. 1999;4(Pt 1):E585–90.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hickey KT, Sciacca RR, Bokhari S, Rodriguez O, Chou RL, Faber TL, Cooke CD, Garcia EV, Nichols K, Bergmann SR. Assessment of cardiac wall motion and ejection fraction with gated pet using N-13 ammonia. Clin Nucl Med. 2004;29:243–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maddahi J, Czernin J, Lazewatsky J, Huang SC, Dahlbom M, Schelbert H, Sparks R, Ehlgen A, Crane P, Zhu Q, Devine M, Phelps M. Phase I, first-in-human study of BMS747158, a novel 18F-labeled tracer for myocardial perfusion PET: dosimetry, biodistribution, safety, and imaging characteristics after a single injection at rest. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:1490–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dilsizian V, Pohost GM, editors. Cardiac PET, CT and MR. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 2010. p. 120–2.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fuller RW, Snoddy HD, Perry KW, Bernstein JR, Murphy PJ. Formation of alpha-methylnorepinephrine as a metabolite of metaraminol in guinea pigs. Biochem Pharmacol. 1981;30:2831–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Matsunari I, Aoki H, Nomura Y, Takeda N, Chen WP, Taki J, Nakajima K, Nekolla SG, Kinuya S, Kajinami K. Iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine imaging and carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography compared in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2010;3:595–603.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean N. DaSilva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ana C. Valadiva
    • 2
  • Ilias Mylonas
    • 1
  • Tayebeh Hadizad
    • 1
  • Robert A. deKemp
    • 1
  • Rob S. B. Beanlands
    • 3
  1. 1.National Cardiac PET Centre, University of Ottawa Heart InstituteOttawaCanada
  2. 2.Gilbert’s LLPTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Division of Cardiology, Department of MedicineUniversity of Ottawa Heart InstituteOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations