Acute Problems and Emergency Surgery: Envenomations: Bites and Stings

  • Steven A. Bland


The management of animal bites remains a worldwide problem, however the additional problem of envenomation requires urgent and life saving treatment including first aid measures and the potential use of antivenin.


Bites Stings Venom Envenomation Antivenom Antivenin Snake Scorpion Spider Centipede Marine envenomation Paralytic tick bites Remote medicine Environmental medicine 

Further Resources

  1. American College of Medical Toxicology, American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, American Association of Poison Control Centers, European Association of Poison Control Centres, International Society of Toxinology, Asian Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology. Position statement: Pressure immobilization after North American Crotalinae snake envenomation. J Med Toxicol. 2011;7(4):322–323.Google Scholar
  2. Gold BS, Barish RA, Dart RC. North American snake envenomation: diagnosis, treatment and management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004;22:423–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Saucier JR. Arachnid envenomation. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2004;22:405–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Sutherland SK. Australian animal toxins: the creatures, their toxins and care of the poisoned patient. 2nd ed. Melbourne: Oxford University Press; 1983.Google Scholar
  5. University of Melbourne: Australian Venom Research Unit website.
  6. Warrell DA. Guidelines for the management of snake-bites (South-East Asia). WHO, New Delhi. 2010.
  7. WHO Regional Office for Africa. Guidelines for the prevention and clinical management of snakebite in Africa (WHO/AFR/EDM/EDP/10.01). WHO, Brazzaville. 2010.
  8. WHO. Rabies and Envenoming: A Neglected Public Health Issue – Report of a Consultative Meeting WHO, Geneva. 10 Jan 2007. WHO, Paris. 2007.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of MedicalDefence CBRN CentreWinterbourne Gunner, SalisburyUK

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