Intrinsic Motivation and Design of ICT for the Ageing Population

  • T. S. Goldhaber
  • P. M. Langdon
  • P. J. Clarkson
Conference paper


In many countries around the world, the average of the population is rapidly increasing (OECD, 2006). On average, people require more healthcare as they age (Blaschke et al., 2009), meaning that in a population in which more people are of an advanced age, there will need to be a higher level of healthcare provision (Gray, 2005). However, existing medical systems have neither the finances nor capacity to insure a high standard of care for older individuals (Rechel et al., 2009).


Intrinsic Motivation Motivation Theory Interface Design Mastery Goal Fluid Intelligence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The authors are grateful for the help of Dr Andrew Przybylski in providing and discussing many valuable sources of information and ideas regarding intrinsic motivation.


  1. Bandura A (1977) Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychol Rev 84(2):191–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blaschke C, Freddolino P, Mullen E (2009) Ageing and technology: a review of the research literature. Br J Social Work 39(4):641–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carstensen LL, Isaacowitz DM, Charles ST (1999) Taking time seriously—a theory of socioemotional selectivity. Am Psychol 54(3):165–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chaffin AJ, Harlow SD (2005) Cognitive learning applied to older adult learners and technology. Educ Gerontol 31(4):301–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Csíkszentmihályi M (1990) Flow: the psychology of optimal experience. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Cury F, Elliot AJ, Da Fonseca D, Moller AC (2006) The social-cognitive model of achievement motivation and the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. J Pers Soc Psychol 90(4):666–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Czaja SJ, Charness N, Fisk AD, Hertzog C, Nair SN, Rogers WA et al (2006) Factors predicting the use of technology: findings from the center for research and education on aging and technology enhancement (CREATE). Psychol Aging 21(2):333–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Czaja SJ, Hiltz SR (2005) Digital aids for an aging society. Commun ACM 48(10):43–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. deCharms R (1968) Personal causation. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Deci EL, Koestner R, Ryan RM (1999) A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychol Bull 125(6):627–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Deci EL, Ryan RM (2000) The “what” and “why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychol Inq 11(4):227–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Deci EL, Ryan RM (2008a) Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Can Psychology–Psychologie Canadienne 49(1):14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deci EL, Ryan RM (2008b) Self-determination theory: a macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Can Psychology–Psychologie Canadienne 49(3):182–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Deci EL, Vallerand RJ, Pelletier LG, Ryan RM (1991) Motivation and education: The selfdetermination perspective. Educational Psychologist 26(3/4):325–346Google Scholar
  15. Dickinson A, Eisma R, Gregor P, Syme A, Milne S (2005) Strategies for teaching older people to use the World Wide Web. Univ Access Inf Soc 4(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Draper SW (1999) Analysing fun as a candidate software requirement. Pers Ubiquit Comput 3(3):117–122Google Scholar
  17. Fisher CD (1978) Effects of personal control, competence, and extrinsic reward systems on intrinsic motivation. Organizational Behav Human Perform 21(3):273–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ghani JA, Deshpande SP (1994) Task characteristics and the experience of optimal flow in human-computer interaction. J Psychol 128(4):381–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gray A (2005) Population ageing and health care expenditure. Ageing Horizons 2:15–20Google Scholar
  20. Gupta M, Chotard L, Ingporsson O, Bastos J, Borges I (2009) Health@home—an e-service model for disease prevention and healthcare in the home. Electron Healthcare 1:17–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hawthorn D (2000) Possible implications of aging for interface designers. Interact Comput 12(5):507–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hawthorn D (2007) Interface design and engagement with older people. Behav Inf Technol 26(4):333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jung JH, Schneider C, Valacich J (2010) Enhancing the motivational affordance of information systems: the effects of real-time performance feedback and goal setting in group collaboration environments. Manage Sci 56(4):724–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lawton MP, Moss MS, Winter L, Hoffman C (2002) Motivation in later life: personal projects and well-being. Psychol Aging 17(4):539–547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malone TW (1981) Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Sci 5(4):333–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Melenhorst AS, Rogers WA, Bouwhuis DG (2006) Older adults’ motivated choice fortechnological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity. Psychol Aging 21(1):190–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Melenhorst AS, Rogers WA, Caylor EC (2001) The use of communication technologies by older adults: exploring the benefits from the user’s perspective. Human Factors Ergon Soc Ann Meeting Proc 45(3):221–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Monk A, Hassenzahl M, Blythe M, Reed D (2002) Funology: designing enjoymentGoogle Scholar
  29. Mynatt ED, Melenhorst AS, Fisk AD, Rogers WA (2004) Aware technologies for aging in place: understanding user needs and attitudes. IEEE Pervasive Comput 3(2):36–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. OECD (2006) Live longer, work longer: a synthesis report of the ageing and employment. Policies project. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  31. OFCOM (2006) Older people and communications technology. OFCOM Consumer PanelGoogle Scholar
  32. Privette G (1983) Peak experience, peak performance, and flow: a comparative analysis of positive human experiences. J Pers Soc Psychol 45(6):1361–1368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Przybylski AK, Rigby CS, Ryan RM (2010) A motivational model of video game engagement. Rev Gen Psychology 14(2):154–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rechel B, Doyle Y, Grundy E, McKee M (2009) How can health systems respond to population ageing?. World Health Organization, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  35. Rieber LP, Smith L, Noah D (1998) The value of serious play. Educational Technol 38(6):29–37Google Scholar
  36. Rummel A, Feinberg R (1988) Cognitive evaluation theory—a meta-analytic review of the literature. Social Behav Personality 16(2):147–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ryan RM, Deci EL (2000a) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemp Educ Psychol 25(1):54–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Ryan RM, Deci EL (2000b) Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychol 55(1):68–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ryan RM, Mims V, Koestner R (1983) Relation of reward contingency and interpersonal context to intrinsic motivation—a review and test using cognitive evaluation theory. J Pers Soc Psychol 45(4):736–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ryan RM, Rigby CS, Przybylski A (2006) The motivational pull of video games: a selfdetermination theory approach. Motivation Emotion 30(4):347–363Google Scholar
  41. Sheldon KM, Filak V (2008) Manipulating autonomy, competence, and relatedness supportin a game-learning context: new evidence that all three needs matter. Br J Soc Psychol 47:267–283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wagner N, Hassanein K, Head M (2010) Computer use by older adults: a multi-disciplinary review. Comput Hum Behav 26(5):870–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. White RW (1959) Motivation reconsidered—the concept of competence. Psychol Rev 66(5):297–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Williams GC, Lynch M, Glasgow RE (2007) Computer-assisted intervention improves patient-centered diabetes care by increasing autonomy support. Health Psychol 26(6):728–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhang P (2008a) Motivational affordances: reasons for ICT design and use. Commun ACM 51(11):145–147MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zhang P (2008b) Toward a positive design theory: Principles for designing motivating information and communication technology. In: Avital M, Boland R, Cooperrider D (eds) Designing Information and Organizations with a positive lens. Elsevier Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. S. Goldhaber
    • 1
  • P. M. Langdon
    • 1
  • P. J. Clarkson
    • 1
  1. 1.Engineering Design Centre, Department of EngineeringCambridge UniversityCambridgeUK

Personalised recommendations