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Cancer of the Oral Cavity, Pharynx, and Nasopharynx

  • Victor Wünsch Filho
Chapter

Abstract

Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx is one of the ten most common in the world. In 2008, the age-standardized incidence rate was 8.7 per 100,000 men and 3.4 per 100,000 women, and mortality rate was 7.0 per 100,000 men and 1.7 per 100,000 women. About 90 % of oral cavity and pharynx tumors are histological squamous cell type. Incidence increases with age and peaks between ages of 50 and 70 years. Incidence is higher in more developed regions for males than less developed regions, while mortality is similar between the more and less developed regions. In women, incidence and mortality are higher in less developed regions. In India, these tumors are a heavy health burden in both urban and rural areas. They are responsible for the highest cancer mortality rates in men and are third after breast and uterine cervix tumors in women. Other high-incidence areas are Eastern, Western, and Southern Europe, Australia and New Zealand, and Melanesia. Latin America and the Caribbean have intermediate incidence rates of oral and pharynx cancers; however, rates vary widely between countries in the region and even within those countries. In Brazil, mortality rates from oral cavity cancer are stable in both men and women; however, pharynx cancer is increasing. Increasing incidence of oral and pharynx cancers has been observed in some Western Europe countries. Incidence of oral cavity and pharynx tumors in the United States has been decreasing over the last 30 years. However, increasing incidence in cancer of the tongue, base of the tongue, and the tonsils has been observed in patients under 45 years of age. Nordic countries have also shown increasing incidence of tongue cancer in both male and female young adults.

Keywords

Oral cancer Pharyngeal cancer Occupation Asbestos Diesel engine exhaust Leather dust Cotton dust Occupational risk factors Formaldehyde Wood dust Welding fumes 

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© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of São Paulo School of Public HealthSão PauloBrazil

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