Medical Problems Post Bariatric Surgery


Bariatric surgery is a cost effective way of reducing weight and improving weight related complications. It also improves the quality of life to some extent. However it can precipitate a constellation of metabolic complications which can have serious consequences. This chapter will focus on the role and types of bariatric surgery and will discuss the advantages and complications of these surgical procedures.


Obesity Bariatric surgery Nutrition complications Metabolic complications Depression Eating disorder Metabolic bone disease 


  1. 1.
    Gastric Bypass up 530 % in 6 years, NHS choices, Health News; Aug 2012.
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Rajeswaran C, Shaikh R, Mohammad M. Bariatric surgery: a long-term solution to managing diabesity. Pract Nurs. 2013;24(12):608–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Obesity. Guidance on the prevention of overweight and obesity is adults and children.
  5. 5.
    Pories WJ, Swanson MS, MacDonald KG, Long SB, Morris PG, Brown BM, Barakat HA, et al. Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus. Ann Surg. 1995;222(3):339.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buchwald H, et al. Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2004;292(14):1724–37.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sjöström L. Review of the key results from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) trial–a prospective controlled intervention study of bariatric surgery. J Intern Med. 2013;273(3):219–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sjöström L, Lindroos AK, Peltonen M, Torgerson J, Bouchard C, Carlsson B, Dahlgren S, et al. Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(26):2683–93.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Spanou M, Tziomalos K. Bariatric surgery as a treatment option in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes. 2013;4(2):14.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heber D, Greenway FL, Kaplan LM, Livingston E, Salvador J, Still C, Endocrine Society. Endocrine and nutritional management of the post-bariatric surgery patient: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(11):4823–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Accessed November 2014.
  12. 12.
    Fujioka K, DiBaise JK, Martindale RG. Nutrition and metabolic complications after bariatric surgery and their treatment. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2011;35(5 Suppl):52S–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    John S, Hoegerl C. Nutritional deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2009;|109(11):601–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kubik JF, Gill RS, Laffin M, Karmali S. The impact of bariatric surgery on psychological health. J Obes. 2013;2013:837989.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stunkard AJ, Wadden TA. Psychological aspects of severe obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 1992;55(2):524S–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Snyder AG. Psychological assessment of the patient undergoing bariatric surgery. Ochsner J. 2009;9(3):144–8.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karlsson J, Sjöström L, Sullivan M. Swedish obese subjects (SOS)–an intervention study of obesity. Two-year follow-up of health-related quality of life (HRQL) and eating behavior after gastric surgery for severe obesity. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1998;22(2):113–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van Hout G. Psychosocial effects of bariatric surgery. Acta Chir Belg. 2005;105(1):40–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Marcus M, Kalarchian M, Courcoulas A. Psychiatric evaluation and follow-up of bariatric surgery patients. Am J Psychiatry. 2009;166(3):285–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deitel M. Anorexia nervosa following bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2002;12(6):729–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sogg S. Alcohol misuse after bariatric surgery: epiphenomenon or “Oprah” phenomenon? Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007;3(3):366–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hagedorn JC, Encarnacion B, Brat GA, Morton JM. Does gastric bypass alter alcohol metabolism? Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2007;3(5):543–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Orzech D. Counselling bariatric surgery patients. Social Work Today. 5(6):24.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fujioka K. Follow-up of nutritional and metabolic problems after bariatric surgery. Diabetes Care. 2005;28(2):481–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Monteforte MJ, Turkelson CM. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity. Obes Surg. 2000;10(5):391–401.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cheng TO. Selenium deficiency and cardiomyopathy. J R Soc Med. 2002;95(4):219–20.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bergqvist AG, Chee CM, Lutchka L, Rychik J, Stallings VA. Selenium deficiency associated with cardiomyopathy: a complication of the ketogenic diet. Epilepsia. 2003;44(4):618–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Williams SE. Metabolic bone disease in the bariatric surgery patient. J Obes. 2011;2011:634614.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shapses SA, Riedt CS. Bone, body weight, and weight reduction: what are the concerns? J Nutr. 2006;136(6):1453–6.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sanghera TS, Kang SN, Hamdan K. Metabolic bone disease and bariatric surgery. Rheumatol Curr Res. 2012;S5:001.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Collazo-Clavell ML, Jimenez A, Hodgson SF, Sarr MG. Osteomalacia after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Endocr Pract. 2004;10(3):195–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Derogar M, Hull MA, Kant P, Östlund M, Lu Y, Lagergren J. Increased risk of colorectal cancer after obesity surgery. Ann Surg. 2013;258(6):983–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xanthakos SA. Nutritional deficiencies in obesity and after bariatric surgery. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2009;56(5):1105–21.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and ObesityDewsbury District HospitalDewsburyUK

Personalised recommendations