Female Infertility: Diagnosis and Management

Abstract

Infertility is defined as failure of a couple not using any form of contraception to conceive after 12 months of regular sexual intercourse. It constitutes a major social and psychological burden amongst couples, and the prevalence is increasing. Conditions in the female partner account for the majority of cases of infertility. This chapter summarises the different etiological factors in female infertility, baseline investigative evaluation and the management options for couples presenting with female factor infertility.

Keywords

Female infertility Hypothyroidism Ovulatory disorders Hyperprolactinemia Polycystic ovary syndrome 

References

  1. 1.
    Fertility: assessment and treatment for people with fertility problems. NICE clinical guideline 156. Issued Feb 2013.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Yasmin E, Davies M, Conway G, Balen AH, British Fertility Society. Ovulation induction in WHO Type 1 anovulation: guidelines for practice. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2013;16(4):228–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Weiss RV, Clapauch R. Female infertility of endocrine origin. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014;58(2):144–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    ESHRE Capri Workshop Group. Health and fertility in World Health Organization group 2 anovulatory women. Hum Reprod Update. 2012;18(5):586–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fauser BC, Tarlatzis BC, Rebar RW, Legro RS, Balen AH, Lobo R, Carmina E, et al. Consensus on women’s health aspects of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): the Amsterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored 3rd PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Fertil Steril. 2012;97(1):28–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Rotterdam ESHRE/ASRM-Sponsored PCOS Consensus Workshop Group. Revised 2003 consensus on diagnostic criteria and long-term health risks related to polycystic ovary syndrome. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:41–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ben-Shlomo I, Younis JS. Basic research in PCOS: are we reaching new frontiers? Reprod Biomed Online. 2014;28(6):669–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Diagnostic evaluation of the infertile female: a committee opinion. Fertil Steril. 2012;98(2):302–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Broekmans FJ, Verweij PJ, Eijkemans MJ, Mannaerts BM, Witjes H. Prognostic models for high and low ovarian responses in controlled ovarian stimulation using a GnRH antagonist protocol. Hum Reprod. 2014;29(8):1688–97.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Farquhar C, Brown J, Marjoribanks J. Laparoscopic drilling by diathermy or laser for ovulation induction in anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(6):CD001122.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Balen AH. Ovulation induction in the management of anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2013;373(1–2):77–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Homburg R, Hendriks ML, König TE, Anderson RA, Balen AH, Brincat M, Child T, et al. Clomifene citrate or low-dose FSH for the first-line treatment of infertile women with anovulation associated with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized multinational study. Hum Reprod. 2012;27(2):468–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tang T, Glanville J, Barth J, Hayden C, Balen AH. Combined lifestyle modification and metformin in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome. A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicentre study. Hum Reprod. 2006;21:80–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moll E, Bossuyt PM, Korevaar JC, Lambalk CB, van der Veen F. Effect of clomifene citrate plus metformin and clomifene citrate plus placebo on induction of ovulation in women with newly diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: randomised double blind clinical trial. BMJ. 2006;332(7556):1485.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Legro RS, Barnhart HX, Schlaff WD, Carr BR, Diamond MP, Carson SA, Steinkampf MP, et al.; Cooperative Multicenter Reproductive Medicine Network. Clomiphene, metformin, or both for infertility in the polycystic ovary syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2007;356(6):551–66.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tang T, Lord JM, Norman RJ, Yasmin E, Balen AH. Insulin-sensitising drugs (metformin, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, Dchiro-inositol) for women with polycystic ovary syndrome, oligo amenorrhoea and subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;(5):CD003053. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003053.pub5.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leeds Centre for Reproductive Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyLeeds Teaching HospitalsLeedsUK

Personalised recommendations