New Approaches to Diagnosing Male Infertility, Part II: The Role of Confocal Microscopy and Three-Dimensional Reconstruction in Visualization of Reinke’s Crystals

  • Viviana Kozina
  • Davor Ježek


The aim of this chapter is to illustrate the use of confocal microscopy and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction in the visualization of various testicular structures. As an example, Reinke’s crystals are pointed out. Reinke’s crystals resemble hexagonal prisms of various sizes (mostly 2–3 μm). They are composed of parallel 5- to 10-nm filaments and do not have a unit membrane. Sometimes, a single crystal may be found in the cytoplasm and nucleus of Leydig cells. However, very often, two or even more crystals are present that may cause a deformity of the nucleus and infolding of the nuclear membrane. Occasionally, one may note electron-dense rod-shaped structures inside the crystal. Besides the remarkable Reinke crystals, other paracrystalline inclusions may be found within human Leydig cells.


Leydig Cell Point Spread Function Male Infertility Unit Membrane Hexagonal Prism 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Histology and Embryology, School of MedicineUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia

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