How to Perform a Clinical Radiograph and Use a C-Arm

  • Christopher T. L. WilkinsonEmail author


Despite the widespread increased availability of CT and MRI, the plain radiograph (e.g., the “KUB” abdominal film) still remains a key diagnostic tool for the urologist. In addition, the “c-arm” or “image intensifier” allows real-time imaging to guide a wide variety of urological procedures. Although a radiographer is commonly employed to perform clinical radiographs and operate the c-arm, it is important that the urologist understands the principles behind their function in order to make best use of these modalities.


Image Intensifier Urologic Procedure Light Photon Pulse Fluoroscopy Glass Envelope 
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Further Reading

  1. Carter PH, et al. Chesneys’ equipment for student radiographers. 4th ed. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell; 1994.Google Scholar
  2. Sloane C, et al. Clark’s pocket handbook for radiographers. London: Hodder Arnold; 2010.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of RadiologySt James’s University HospitalLeedsUK

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