The Brain and Cerebrovascular Fluid

  • Michael T. Sheaff
  • Naveena Singh


Tumors and infections of the central nervous system can occasionally be difficult to differentiate from one another and other nonneoplastic, noninfective conditions. Cytology can often help refine the diagnosis either through examination of the cerebrospinal fluid or cytological assessment of smeared tissue sampled by a minimally invasive procedure. The microscopic features of the various diseases are described in this chapter, with clues to aid diagnostic confidence and avoid potential pitfalls.


Lumbar Puncture Bacterial Meningitis Ependymal Cell Tuberculous Meningitis Choroid Plexus Papilloma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Resources and Suggested Reading

  1. Bell JE. Update on central nervous system cytopathology. I. Cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Pathol. 1994;47:573–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bigner SH. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology: current status and diagnostic applications. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 1992;51:235–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Craig FE, Ohori NP, Gorrill TS, Swerdlow SH. Flow cytometric immunophenotyping of cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Am J Clin Pathol. 2011;135:22–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Deisenhammer F, Egg R, Giovannoni G, et al. EFNS guidelines on disease-specific CSF investigations. Eur J Neurol. 2009;16:760–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ironside JW. Update on central nervous system cytopathology. II. Brain smear technique. J Clin Pathol. 1994;47(8):683–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Kleihues P, Cavenee WK. World Health Organization Classification of Tumours – pathology and genetics. Tumours of the nervous system. Lyon: IARC Press; 2000.Google Scholar
  7. Olukoga AO, Bolodeoku J, Donaldson D. Origins of…Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in clinical diagnosis. J Clin Pathol. 1997;50:187–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael T. Sheaff
    • 1
  • Naveena Singh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Cellular PathologyBarts Health NHS TrustLondonUK

Personalised recommendations