Blastocyst Versus Cleavage Stage Embryo Transfer: Maximizing Success Rates

  • Eric S. Surrey
  • William B. Schoolcraft


Over the last decade, progressive refinements in the evaluation of ovarian reserve, controlled ovarian hyperstimulation regimens, embryology laboratory culture systems, as well as embryo transfer and cryopreservation techniques have resulted in significant improvements in assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. With these advances, an emerging need to maximize the likelihood of a live birth while minimizing the risk of multiple gestations has attained paramount importance, particularly in the case of oocyte donation. Recently published guidelines from the American Society for Reproductive Medicine have stated that in the case of a young oocyte donor with favorable prognosis, only a single blastocyst stage or no more than two cleavage stage embryos be transferred. However, in a recent analysis, Martin et al. suggested that even in “best” prognosis oocyte donors from whom at least two donations had resulted in live birth, the live birth rates per oocyte retrieved and per embryo transferred were only 7.3 and 24.6 %, respectively. Given this staggering degree of attrition even in the best prognosis patients and the need to decrease the numbers of embryos transferred, it is critical that clinicians and embryologists obtain as much information as possible about the developmental and implantation potential of embryos considered for transfer.


Embryo Transfer Assisted Reproductive Technology Live Birth Rate Blastocyst Stage Implantation Rate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Colorado Center for Reproductive MedicineLone TreeUSA

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