Space-based Observation of Offshore Strong Wind for Electric Power Generation

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

To optimize the deployment of offshore wind farms for electric power generation, the geographical and seasonal distributions of strong wind over global oceans were examined using nine years of equivalent neutral winds measured by a space-based scatterometer. The relation between scatterometer measurement and surface wind vector is explained. The dependence of wind strength on height and stability is examined. Near-shore locations of strong wind are identified.

Keywords

Microwave Radar Coherence Stratification Cyclone 

Notes

Acknowledgment

This study was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It was jointly supported by the Ocean Vector Winds and the Physical Oceanography Programs of NASA.

References

  1. 1.
    Barthelmie RJ (2001) Evaluating the impact of wind induced roughness change and tidal range on extrapolation of offshore vertical wind speed profiles. Wind Energ 4:99–105. doi: (10.1002/we.45) CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Capps SB, Zender CS (2008) Observed and CAM3 GCM sea surface wind speed distributions: characterization, comparison, and bias reduction. J Clim 21:6569–6585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Donelan MA, Drenan WM, Katsaros KB (1997) The air-sea momentum flux in conditions of wind sea and swell. J Phys Oceanogr 27:2087–2099CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Guénard V, Drobinski P, Caccia JL, Tedeschi G, Currier P (2006) Dynamics of the MAP IOP 15 severe Mistral event: Observations and high-resolution numerical simulations. Q J R Meteor Soc 132:757–777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hu H, Liu WT (2003) Oceanic thermal and biological responses to santa ana winds. Geophys Res Lett 30(11):1596. doi: 10.1029/2003GL017208 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kawamura H, Wu P (1998) Formation mechanism of Japan sea proper water in the flux center off vladivostok. J Geophys Res 103:21611–21622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kondo J (1975) Airsea bulk transfer coefficients in diabatic conditions. Boundary-Layer Meteor 9:91–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Large WG, Pond S (1981) Open ocean momentum flux measurements in moderate to strong winds. J Phys Oceanogr 11:324–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Liu WT (2002) Progress in scatterometer application. J Oceanogr 58:121–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu WT, Large WG (1981) Determination of surface stress by Seasat-SASS: a case study with JASIN data. J Phys Oceanogr 11:1603–1611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu WT, Tang W (1996) Equivalent neutral wind. JPL Publication 96–17, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, pp 16Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Liu WT, Xie X, (2006) Measuring ocean surface wind from space. In: Gower J (ed) Remote sensing of the marine environment, manual of remote sensing, 3rd edn, vol 6, Chap 5. American society for photogrammetry and remote sensing, USA, pp 149–178Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu WT, Xie X (2008) Ocean-atmosphere momentum coupling in the kuroshio extension observed from space. J Oceanogr 64:631–637CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu WT, Katsaros KB, Businger JA (1979) Bulk parameterization of air-sea exchanges in heat and water vapor including the molecular constraints at the interface. J Atmos Sci 36:1722–1735CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu WT, Xie X, Niiler PP (2007) Ocean-atmosphere interaction over agulhas extension meanders. J Clim 20(23):5784–5797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liu WT, Tang W, Xie X (2008) Wind power distribution over the ocean. Geophys Res Lett 35:L13808. doi: 10.1029/2008GL034172 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu WT, Tang W, Xie X, Navalgund R, Xu K (2008) Power density of ocean surface wind-stress from international scatterometer tandem missions. Int J Remote Sens 29(21):6109–6116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu WT, Tang W, Xie X (2010) Wind power at sea as observed from space. In: Muyeen SM (ed) Wind power, Chap 14. Intech, Vukovar, pp 341–352Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Liu WT, Xie X, Tang W (2010b) Scatterometer’s unique capability in measuring ocean surface stress. In: Barale V, Gower JFR, Alberotanza L (eds) Oceanography from space, Chap 6. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 93–111Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Monaldo FM, Thompson DR, Pichel WG, Clemente-Colon P (2004) A systematic comparison of QuikSCAT and SAR ocean surface wind speeds. IEEE Trans Geosci Remote Sens 42:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Risien CM, Chelton DB (2006) A satellite-derived climatology of global ocean winds. Remote Sens Environ 105:221–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sampe T, Xie S-P (2007) Mapping high sea winds from space: a global climatology. Bull Amer Meteor Soc 88:1965–1978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sun F, Yu J-Y (2006) Impacts of central America gap winds on the SST annual cycle in the Eastern Pacific warm pool. Geophys Res Lett 33:L0670. doi: 10.10.1029/2005GL024700 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Smith SD (1980) Wind stress and heat flux over the ocean in gale force winds. J Phys Oceanogr 10:709–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xie S-P, Xu H, Kessler WS, Nonaka M (2005) Air-sea interaction over the eastern Pacific warm pool: gap winds, thermocline dome, and atmospheric convection. J Clim 18:5–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations