Serious Games: A New Paradigm for Education?

Abstract

This chapter explores the context for the new paradigm of learning emerging in education, in relation to key critical concepts that centre around gamification, immersion, interface and social interactivity. The chapter provides an extensive literature review as part of the context for the paradigm shift, including considering serious games and gamification, and social learning as key constructs for considering the changes to educational practices and infrastructure faced by educationalists and instructors over the coming years. The chapter also provides an historical background section and highlights some of the conceptual work that has been done already to frame the changes, firstly in relation to the notion of ‘gamification’ through the lens of an historical overview of serious games and secondly in a section exploring the need for an overall model for serious game design based upon four models and frameworks developed in past research work including the four dimensional framework, exploratory learning model, multimodal interface architecture model and the game-based learning framework. The chapter aims to set out the key conceptual territory for serious game design and bring together the main theoretical areas under consideration for future development of effective serious game content.

References

  1. Active Words Inc.: Active Words. http://www.activeworlds.com (2008). Accessed 18 Sept 2008
  2. Anderson, E.F., McLoughlin, L., et al.: Serious games in cultural heritage. In: Proceedings of the 10th VAST International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Cultural Heritage – STARs session, Eurographics, Malta, pp. 29–48, 22–25 September 2009Google Scholar
  3. Annetta, L.A., Murray, M.R., et al.: Serious games: Incorporating video games in the classroom. Educause Rev. 3, 16–22 (2006)Google Scholar
  4. Arnab, S., Petridis, P., Dunwell, I., de Freitas, S.: Touching artefacts in an ancient world on a browser-based platform. IADIS International Conference: Web Virtual Reality and Three-Dimensional Worlds 2010, Freiburg, Germany, 27–29 July (2010)Google Scholar
  5. Baddeley, A.D.: The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends Cogn. Sci. 4(11), 417–423 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. BinSubaih, A., Maddock, S., Romano, D.M.: An architecture for portable serious games. In: Doctoral Symposium hosted at the 20th European Conference on Object-Oriented Programming ECOOP 2006, Nantes, France (2006)Google Scholar
  7. Brown, S.: Play as an organizing principle. In: Bekoff, M., Byers, J.A. (eds.) Animal Play: Evolutionary, Comparative, and Ecological Perspectives, pp. 243–259. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Csikszentmihalyi, M.: Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. Harper and Row, New York (1990)Google Scholar
  9. de Freitas, S., Jarvis, S.: Towards a development approach for serious games. In: Connolly, T.M., Stansfield, M., Boyle, E. (eds.) Games-Based Learning Advancements for Multi-Sensory Human-Computer Interfaces: Techniques and Effective Practices, pp. 215–231. IGI Global, Hershey, PA (2008)Google Scholar
  10. de Freitas, S., Neumann, T.: The use of ‘exploratory learning’ for supporting immersive learning in virtual environments. Comput. Educ. 52(2), 343–352 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. de Freitas, S., Oliver, M.: How can exploratory learning with games and simulations within the curriculum be most effectively evaluated? Comput. Edu. 46(3), 249–264 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Lisi, R., Wolford, J.L.: Improving children’s mental rotation accuracy with computer game playing. J. Genet. Psychol. 163(3), 172–182 (2002)Google Scholar
  13. Dunwell, I., de Freitas, S.: Four-dimensional consideration of feedback in serious games. In: de Freitas, S., Maharg, P. (eds.) Digital Games and Learning, pp. 42–62. Continuum Publishing, London (2011)Google Scholar
  14. Fadel, C.: Multimodal learning through media: What the research says, White Paper, Cisco. http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf (2008). Accessed 30 Oct 2009
  15. Forterra Systems Inc.: OLIVE – Purpose driven virtual worlds for everyone. http://www.forterrainc.com/images/stories/pdf/OLIVE_Dec07_Final_Rev.pdf (2008). Accessed 18 Sep 2008
  16. Groenewegen, S., Strassner, J.: Virtuelle Charaktere in Lehrsituationen: Ein Konzept zur Nachbildung von realem Unterricht. In: Groenewegen S., Strassner, J. (eds.) 1.Workshop AR VR, im Tagungsband Graphiktag 2004, GI Chemnitz (2004)Google Scholar
  17. Hagel, H., Armstrong, A.: Net Gain: Expanding Markets through Virtual Communities. Business School Press, Boston, MA (1997)Google Scholar
  18. Hodgins, D.: Coordinator early childhood education. Male and female differences. languagelog.ldc.upenn.edu/myl/llog/Hodgins1.pdf (2005). Accessed 13 Feb 2009Google Scholar
  19. Interactive Software Federation of Europe: Video gamers in Europe 2010 report. http://www.isfe.eu/sites/isfe.eu/files/isfe_final_combined.pdf (2010). Accessed 24 Nov 2011
  20. Jarvis, S., de Freitas, S.: Evaluation of an immersive learning programme to support triage training. In Proceedings of the 1st IEEE International Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications, IEEE Computer Society, Coventry, UK, 23–24 March 2009Google Scholar
  21. Kato, P.M., Cole, S.W., Bradlyn, A.S., Pollock, B.H.: A video game improves behavioral outcomes in adolescents and young adults with cancer: A randomized trial. Pediatrics 122, 305–317 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kirriemuir, J., McFarlane, C.A.: Literature review in games and learning, White Paper, Future Lab. http://www.futurelab.org.uk/resources/documents/lit_reviews/Games_Review.pdf (2006). Accessed 30 Oct 2009
  23. Knight, J., Carly, S., Tregunna, B., Jarvis, S., Smithies, R., de Freitas, S., Mackway-Jones, K., Dunwell, I.: Serious gaming technology in major incident triage training: A pragmatic controlled trial. Resuscitation J. 81(9), 1174–1179 (2010)Google Scholar
  24. Kolb, D.A.: Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ (1984)Google Scholar
  25. Liarokapis, F., Mourkoussis, N., et al.: Web3D and augmented reality to support engineering education, World Trans. Eng. Technol. Educ. UICEE 3(1), 11–14 (2004)Google Scholar
  26. Linden Research: Second life. http://www.secondlife.com (2008). Accessed 18 Sep 2008
  27. Losh, E.: Polite company: Rules of play in five Facebook games. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, pp. 345–351. ACM Press, Yokohama, Japan (2008)Google Scholar
  28. MacCallum-Stewart, E.: Stealth learning in online learning. In: de Freitas, S., Maharg, P. (eds.) Digital Games and Learning, pp. 107–218. Continuum Press, London & New York (2011)Google Scholar
  29. McGonigal, J.: Reality is Broken. Jonathan Cape, London (2011)Google Scholar
  30. Mitchell, A., Savill-Smith, C.: The Use of Computer and Video Games for Learning: A Review of the Literature. Learning and Skills Development Agency, London. http://www.lsda.org.uk/ (2004). Accessed 10 Oct 2008
  31. Paivio, A.: Mental Representations: A Dual Coding Approach. Oxford University Press, New York, NY (1990)Google Scholar
  32. Panzoli, D., Peters, C., Dunwell, I., Sanchez, S., Petridis, P., Protopsaltis, A., Scesa, V., de Freitas, S.: Levels of interaction: A user-guided experience in large-scale virtual environments. In: IEEE 2nd International Conference in Games and Virtual Worlds for Serious Applications (VS GAMES10), pp. 87–90. IEEE, Braga, Portugal, 26–27 March 2010Google Scholar
  33. Rebolledo-Mendez, G., Avramides, K., de Freitas, S., Memarzia, K.: Societal impact of a Serious Game on raising public awareness: The case of FloodSim. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM SIGGRAPH Symposium on Video Games, pp. 15–22. New Orleans, Louisiana (2009)Google Scholar
  34. Rieber, L.P.: Seriously considering play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations, and games. Educ. Technol. Res. Dev. 44(2), 43–58 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Solanki, D.: Do E-learning and Serious Games help students to revise more effectively rather than the traditional approach of using Textbooks? Bachelors Dissertation, Coventry University (2009)Google Scholar
  36. Sørensen, B.H., Meyer, B.: Serious games in language learning and teaching – a theoretical perspective. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the Digital Games Research Association, pp. 559–566, Tokyo, Japan (2007)Google Scholar
  37. Staalduinen, J.P.v., de Freitas, S.: A game-based learning framework: Linking game design and learning outcomes. In: Khyne, M.S. (ed.) Learning to Play: Exploring the Future of Education with Video Games, pp. 29–54. Peter Lang, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  38. Susi, T., Johannesson, M., Backlund, P.: Serious games – an overview. Technical Report HS-IKI-TR-07-001. http://www.his.se/upload/19354/HS-%20IKI%20-TR-07-001.pdf (2007). Accessed 10 Oct 2008
  39. van Eck, R.: Digital game-based learning: It’s not just the digital natives who are restless. Educause Rev. 41(2), 16–30 (2006, March)Google Scholar
  40. White, M., Petridis, P., Liarokapis, F., Plecinckx, D.: Multimodal mixed reality interfaces for visualizing digital heritage. Int. J. Architectural Comput. (IJAC), Special Issue on Cultural Heritage 5, 2, Multi-Science Publishing Co Ltd, 322–337 (June, 2007)Google Scholar
  41. Zyda, M.: From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer 38(9), 25–32 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Serious Games Institute (SGI)Coventry UniversityCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations