Localization of Pancreatic and Gastrointestinal NETs

  • James E. JacksonEmail author
  • Tara D. Barwick


The imaging of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors is best discussed by dividing them into two groups:


Positron Emission Tomography Neuroendocrine Tumor Calcium Gluconate Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia Target Radionuclide Therapy 
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Further Reading

  1. Ambrosini V, Campana D, Tomassetti P, Fanti S. 68Ga-labelled peptides for diagnosis of gastroenteropancreatic NET. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39 Suppl 1:S52–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Basu S, Kumar R, Rubello D, Fanti S, Alavi A. PET imaging in neuroendocrine tumours: current status and future prospects. Minerva Endocrinol. 2008;33:257–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Isla A, Arbuckle JD, Kekis PB, Lim A, Jackson JE, Todd JF, Lynn J. Laparoscopic management of insulinomas. Br J Surg. 2009;96:185–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Jackson JE. Angiography and arterial stimulation venous sampling in the localization of pancreatic islet cell tumours. In: Reznek RH, editor. Best practice and research. Clinical endocrinology and metabolism, vol. 19. Elsevier Science Ltd, London, UK; 2005. p. 229–39.Google Scholar
  5. Kayani I, Bomanji JB, Groves A, Conway G, Gacinovic S, Win T, Dickson J, Caplin M, Ell PJ. Functional imaging of neuroendocrine tumours with combined PET/CT using 68Ga-DOTATATE (DOTA-DPhe1, Tyr3-octreotate) and 18F-FDG. Cancer. 2008;112:2447–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nikfarjam M, Warshaw AL, Axelrod L, Deshpande V, Thayer SP, Ferrone CR, Fernandez-del CC. Improved contemporary surgical management of insulinomas: a 25-year experience at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Ann Surg. 2008;247:165–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Patel KK, Kim MK. Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas: endoscopic diagnosis. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2008;24:638–42. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Rockall AG, Reznek RH. Imaging of neuroendocrine tumours (CT/MR/US). Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;21:43–68. Review.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ImagingHammersmith HospitalLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of ImagingImperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Hammersmith HospitalLondonUK

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