Diagnosis and Preoperative Assessment (Algorithms) for Pancreatic NETs

  • Rachel Troke
  • Karim Meeran


PNETs arise from neuroendocrine cells within the pancreas. Most (up to 90 % in some series) do not secrete hormones (nonfunctioning) and may be an incidental finding on imaging. The rest are described as functioning. These exhibit hypersecretion of various hormones and are generally defined by their secretory products. They may produce one or more hormones, which subsequently give rise to a specific clinical picture (Table 8.1).


Tuberous Sclerosis Ki67 Index Pernicious Anemia Pancreatic Polypeptide Gastrin Level 
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Further Reading

  1. Dhillo WS, Jayasena CN, Jackson JE, Lynn JA, Bloom SR, Meeran K, et al. Localization of gastrinomas by selective intra-arterial calcium injection in patients on proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist therapy. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005;17(4):429–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Fein J, Gerdes H. Localization of islet cell tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography. Gastroenterology. 1992;103(2):711–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Halfdanarson TR, Rabe KG, Rubin J, Petersen GM. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs): incidence, prognosis and recent trend towards improved survival. Ann Oncol. 2008;19:1727–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Imperial Centre for Endocrinology.
  5. European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society.
  6. National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) Stat Fact Sheets. 2013.
  7. Ramage JK, Ahmed A, Ardill J, Bax N, Breen DJ, Caplin ME, et al. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine (including carcinoid) tumours (NETs). Gut. 2012;61(1):6–32. Epub 2011 Nov 3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Turner JJ, Wren AM, Jackson JE, Thakker RV, Meeran K. Localization of gastrinomas by selective intra-arterial calcium injection. Clin Endocrinol. 2002;57(6):821–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rachel Troke
    • 1
  • Karim Meeran
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Endocrinology, Imperial Centre for EndocrinologyHammersmith Hospital CampusLondonUK

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