Parathyroid hormone (PTH) in concert with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates the level of calcium and phosphate from skeletal, renal, and intestinal actions. Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a common endocrinological disease characterized by an elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hyperparathyroidism can be primary (autonomous hyperfunction of one or more parathyroid glands), secondary (physiological response to hypocalcemia due to an underlying disease), or tertiary (post renal transplantation).
Primary HPT may be minimally symptomatic and coincidentally found. However, the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia include renal, neurocognitive, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular manifestations. Differential diagnoses that should be considered include vitamin D deficiency, malignancy, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and lithium or thiazide therapy.
The definitive treatment of primary HPT is parathyroidectomy; however, the clinical and biochemical features may suggest that observation alone is optimal for the patient.
Serum Calcium Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Carcinoma Decrease Bone Mineral Density Osteitis Fibrosa
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Bone mineral density
Fractional excretion of calcium
Distal renal tubular acidosis
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia
Multiple endocrine neoplasia
Proximal renal tubular acidosis
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