Assessment of Hyperparathyroidism

  • Judit Konya
  • Mo Aye
  • R. James England
  • Stephen L. Atkin


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) in concert with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D regulates the level of calcium and phosphate from skeletal, renal, and intestinal actions. Hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a common endocrinological disease characterized by an elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH). Hyperparathyroidism can be primary (autonomous hyperfunction of one or more parathyroid glands), secondary (physiological response to hypocalcemia due to an underlying disease), or tertiary (post renal transplantation).

Primary HPT may be minimally symptomatic and coincidentally found. However, the signs and symptoms of hypercalcemia include renal, neurocognitive, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular manifestations. Differential diagnoses that should be considered include vitamin D deficiency, malignancy, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and lithium or thiazide therapy.

The definitive treatment of primary HPT is parathyroidectomy; however, the clinical and biochemical features may suggest that observation alone is optimal for the patient.


Serum Calcium Parathyroid Gland Parathyroid Carcinoma Decrease Bone Mineral Density Osteitis Fibrosa 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Bone mineral density


Fractional excretion of calcium


Calcium phosphate


Calcium-sensing receptor


Distal renal tubular acidosis


Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia


Multiple endocrine neoplasia


Primary hyperparathyroidism


Proximal renal tubular acidosis


Parathyroid hormone


Parathormone-related peptide


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judit Konya
    • 1
  • Mo Aye
    • 2
  • R. James England
    • 3
  • Stephen L. Atkin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and MetabolismUniversity of Hull, Brocklehurst Building, Hull Royal InfirmaryHullUK
  2. 2.Department of Diabetes, Endocrinology and MetabolismCentre for Metabolic Bone Disease Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Hull Royal InfirmaryHullUK
  3. 3.Department of ENT/Head and Neck SurgeryHull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Castle Hill HospitalEast Riding of YorkshireUK

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