Cushing’s Disease and Syndrome

  • Thomas W. J. Lennard


Cushing’s is characterized by increased levels of circulating glucocorticoids. There are two types:


Adrenal Gland Adrenocortical Carcinoma Adrenal Adenoma Ectopic ACTH Secretion Urinary Free Cortisol Excretion 
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Further Reading

  1. Clutter WE. Cushing’s syndrome; hypercortisolism. In: Doherty GM, Skogseid B, editors. Surgical endocrinology. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2001. p. 237.Google Scholar
  2. Langer P, Cupisti K, Bartsch DK, et al. Adrenal involvement in MEN type 1. World J Surg. 2002;26(8):891–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Lezoche E, Guerrieri M, Feliciotti AM, et al. Anterior, lateral and posterior retroperitoneal approaches in endoscopic adrenalectomy. Surg Endosc. 2002;16(1):96–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Patel HRH, Harris AM, Lennard TWJ. Adrenal masses: the investigation and management of adrenal incidentalomas. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2001;83:250–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Stratakis CA, Boikas SA. Genetics of adrenal tumours associated with Cushing’s Syndrome: a new classification for bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasias. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab. 2007;3(11):748–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SurgeryRoyal Victoria InfirmaryNewcastle Upon TyneUK

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