Surgery for Thyrotoxicosis

  • Sonia Kumar
  • R. James England


Hyperthyroidism is characterized by elevated levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and/or elevated levels of serum triiodothyronine (T3) with low levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, also known as thyrotropin).


Pituitary Adenoma Potassium Iodide Hydatidiform Mole Subacute Thyroiditis Serum Thyroxine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Further Reading

  1. Bahn R, Burch H, Cooper D, Garber J, Greenlee C, Klein I, Laurberg P, et al. Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American thyroid association and American association of clinical endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011;21(6):593–646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartalena L, Baldeschi L, Dickinson AJ, Eckstein A, Kendall-Taylor P, Marcocci C, Mourits MP, Perros P, Boboridis K, Boschi A, Currò N, Daumerie C, Kahaly GJ, Krassas G, Lane CM, Lazarus JH, Marinò M, Nardi M, Neoh C, Orgiazzi J, Pearce S, Pinchera A, Pitz S, Salvi M, Sivelli P, Stahl M, von Arx G, Wiersinga WM. Consensus statement of the European group on Graves’ orbitopathy (EUGOGO) on management of Graves’ orbitopathy. Thyroid. 2008;18:333–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Hannan A. The magnificent seven: a history of modern thyroid surgery. Int J Surg. 2006;4:187–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Kang AS, Grant CS, Thompson GB, van Heerden JA. Current treatment of nodular goiter with hyperthyroidism (Plummer’s disease): surgery versus radioiodine. Surgery. 2002;132:916–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Palit TK, Miller 3rd CC, Miltenburg DM. The efficacy of thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease: a meta-analysis. J Surg Res. 2000;90:161–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of OtolaryngologyRoyal Berkshire HospitalBerkshireUK
  2. 2.Department of ENT/Head and Neck SurgeryHull and East Yorkshire NHS Trust, Castle Hill HospitalCottingham, East Riding of YorkshireUK

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