Adrenal and Paraganglioma: Presentation, Assessment, and Diagnosis

  • Andrew Lansdown
  • Aled ReesEmail author


The adrenal cortex represents 90 % of the gland and is divided into three zones


Primary Hyperaldosteronism Adrenal Mass Adrenocortical Carcinoma Adrenal Vein Adrenal Adenoma 
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Further Reading

  1. Burton TJ, Mackenzie IS, Balan K, Koo B, Bird N, Soloviev DV, Azizan EA, Aigbirhio F, Gurnell M, Brown MJ. Evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of (11)C-metomidate positron emission tomography (PET)-CT for lateralizing aldosterone secretion by Conn’s adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97(1):100–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Lacroix A. Approach to the patient with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4812–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Mulatero P, Monticone S, Bertello C, Tizzani D, Iannaccone A, Crudo V, Veglio F. Evaluation of primary aldosteronism. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2010;17(3):188–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Nieman LK. Approach to the patient with an adrenal incidentaloma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95(9):4106–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Nieman LK, Biller BMK, Findling JW, Newell-Price J, Savage MO, Stewart PM, Montori VM. The diagnosis of Cushing’s syndrome: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008;93(5):1526–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Zeiger MA, Thompson GB, Duh QY, Hamrahian AH, Angelos P, Elaraj D, Fishman E, Kharlip J, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, American Association of Endocrine Surgeons. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American Association of Endocrine Surgeons medical guidelines for the management of adrenal incidentalomas. Endocr Pract. 2009;15 Suppl 1:1–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endocrine Sciences, Institute of Molecular and Experimental Medicine, Centre for Endocrine and Diabetes Sciences, School of MedicineCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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