pp 199-214

Advanced Videolaparoscopy and Videolaseroscopy

  • C. Nezhat
  • , F. Nezhat

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The first attempt at endoscopy was by Philip Bozzini of Italy in 1805, using a tube and a candle. Since that time, the instrumentation for laparoscopy has developed at an acceptable rate although the applications have lagged. Laparoscopy was moderately successful in Europe during the first half of the 20th century. After Jacobaeus of Sweden first induced pneumoperitoneum and placed a Nitze cystoscope into the peritoneal cavity (1910), the technique was applied to diagnostic and simple sterilisation procedures by Kalk (Germany), Ruddock and Hope (United States) in the 1930s. Although the results which were reported were promising, the procedure was not accepted in the United States. The next significant developments occurred in the 1950s. These were cold light (Fourestier, Gladu and Valmiere) and fibreoptics (Kampany and Hopkins). In the late 1940s, Raoul Palmer of France was the main promoter of the use of laparoscopy in gynaecology. He reported the first human tubal fulguration in 1962.