General Pathology



The affinity of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for the CD4 receptor brings about severe depletion of T4 lymphocytes. As a consequence of the ensuing severe deficit in cell-mediated immunity, AIDS patients become extremely sensitive to infectious agents and may also develop certain neoplasms in fulminant forms previously uncommon or unknown. Most of the infections are by opportunist organisms which include viruses (predominantly cytomegalovirus, but also Herpes simplex and zoster), bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and sometimes M. tuberculosis), fungi (Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans) and protozoa (Toxo-plasma gondii, Pneumocystis carinii). Autopsy studies have revealed that virtually every organ or system may be affected; in addition to opportunistic infection, the nervous system may also develop a unique form of encephalitis (see Chapter 6) as a direct effect of HIV. A characteristic feature of this infection is the coexistence in the same patient, indeed in the same organ, of lesions due to more than one agent.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Malignant Lymphoma Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndrome 
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