Effects of Oral, Percutaneous and Transdermal Oestrogens on Postmenopausal Bone

  • M. I. Whitehead
Conference paper


Osteoporosis is a serious consequence of the menopause and a major public health issue. Within the UK, unlike many European countries, there is at present no clearly defined subspecialty of metabolic bone disease. Therefore, counselling of women requesting information on osteoporosis, fracture risk and preventive measures will involve general physicians, endocrinologists, rheumatologists, orthopaedic surgeons, family doctors and gynaecologists. The latter are increasingly becoming involved because the recent Consensus Development Conference on prophylaxis and treatment of osteopoprosis concluded that oestrogens are “currently the only well established prophylactic measure that reduces the frequency of osteoporotic fractures” [1].


Spinal Bone Conjugate Equine Oestrogen Natural Menopause Postmenopausal Bone Loss Ethinyl Oestradiol 
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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1990

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  • M. I. Whitehead

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