Biology of the Menopause

  • D. T. Baird
Conference paper


The average life expectancy of women in Western countries is now about 75 years and at least 90% will reach 65 years. Thus the majority of women will spend approximately one-third of their life in the menopausal state. By definition the menopause is the last menstrual period and its timing can only be determined in retrospect; by convention if there has been no spontaneous period for 12 months, ovarian failure with consequent lack of menstrual bleeding is deemed to have occurred. Ovarian failure is an integral part of the menopause; amenorrhoea due to lack of pituitary gonadotrophins or removal of the uterus with conservation of the ovaries is not usually included in the menopausal state.


Menopausal State Corpus Luteum Follicular Phase Antral Follicle Ovarian Failure 
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© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1990

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  • D. T. Baird

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