Advertisement

Micturition pp 29-39 | Cite as

Neurotransmitters and Receptor Functions in the Human Lower Urinary Tract

  • K.-E. Andersson

Abstract

Signal transmission between nerves, and between a nerve and an effector organ, occurs by means of chemical substances, “neurotransmitters”, secreted from the presynaptic or prejunctional neurons. According to common textbooks of physiology (e.g. [1]) more than 30 different chemical substances have been either proved or postulated to be synaptic transmitters.

Keywords

Urinary Bladder Muscarinic Receptor Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide Human Bladder Bladder Smooth Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Guyton AC. Textbook of medical physiology, 7th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders, 1986; 552.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Daniel EE. Nonadrenergic, noncholinergic (NANC) neuronal inhibitory interactions with smooth muscle. In: Grover AK, Daniel EE, eds. Calcium and contractility. Clifton, NJ: The Humana Press, 1985; 385–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    de Groat WC, Booth AM. Physiology of the urinary bladder and urethra. Ann Int Med 1980; 92:312–15.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Maggi CA, Meli A. The role of neuropeptides in the regulation of the micturition reflex. J Auton Pharmacol 1986; 6:133–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Groat WC, Saum WR. Sympathetic inhibition of the urinary bladder and of pelvic ganglionic transmission in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 1972; 220:297–314.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mobley TL, El-Badawi A, McDonald D, Schenk E. Innervation of the human urinary bladder. Surg Forum 1966; 17:505–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ek A, Aim P, Andersson K-E, Persson CGA. Adrenergic and cholinergic nerves of the human urethra and urinary bladder. A histochemical study. Acta Physiol Scand 1977; 99:345–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ambache H, Zar MA. Non-choUnergic transmission by postganglionic motor neurones in the mammalian bladder. J Physiol (Lond) 1970; 210:761–83.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Taira N. The autonomic pharmacology of the bladder. Ann Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 1970; 12:197–208.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sjögren C, Andersson K-E, Husted S, Mattiasson A, Møller-Madsen B. Atropine resistance of the transmurally stimulated isolated human bladder. J Urol 1982; 128:1368–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sibley GNA. A comparison of spontaneous and nerve-mediated activity in bladder muscle from man, pig and rabbit. J Physiol (Lond) 1984; 354:431–43.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kinder RB, Mundy AR. Atropine blockade of nerve-mediated stimulation of the human detrusor. BrJ Urol 1985; 57:418–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Craggs MD, Rushton DN, Stephenson JD. A putative non-cholinergic mechanism in urinary bladders of new but not old world primates. J Urol 1986; 136:1348–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andersson K-E. Clinical relevance of some findings in neuro-anatomy and neurophysiology of the lower urinary tract. Clin Sci 1986; 70 Suppl 14:21–32.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Levin RM, Staskin DR, Wein AJ. The muscarinic chohnergic binding kinetics of the human urinary bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 1982; 1:221–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Anderson GF, Skender JG, Navarro SP. Quantitation and stability of cholinergic receptors in human bladder tissue from post surgical and postmortem sources. J Urol 1985; 133:897–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nilvebrandt L, Andersson K-E, Mattiasson A. Characterization of the muscarinic cholinoceptors in the human detrusor. J Urol 1985; 134:418–23.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Batra S, Björklund A, Hedlund H, Andersson K-E. Identification and characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the human urinary bladder and parotid gland. J Auton Nerv Syst 1987;20:129–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zappia L, Cartella A, Potenzoni D, Bertaccini G. Action of pirenzepine on the human urinary bladder in vitro. J Urol 1986; 136:739–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ruggieri MR, Bode DC, Levin RM, Wein AJ. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rabbit bladder. Neurourol Urodyn 1987; 6:119–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Levin RM, Ruggieri MR, Wein AJ. Identification of receptor subtypes in the rabbit and human urinary bladder by selective radio-ligand binding. J Urol 1988; 139:844–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Adami M, Bertaccini G, Coruzzi G, Poli E. Characterization of cholinoreceptors in the rat urinary bladder by the use of agonists and antagonists of the cholinergic system. J Auton Pharmacol 1985; 5:197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    van Charldorp KJ, de Jonge A, Thoolen MJ, van Zwieten PA. Subclassification of muscarinic receptors in the heart, urinary bladder and sympathetic ganglia in the pithed rat. Selectivity of some classical agonists. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 1985; 331:301–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Monferini E, Giraldo E, Ladinsky H. Characterization of the muscarinic receptor subtypes in the rat urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 147:453–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Andersson K-E, Fovaeus M, Hedlund H, Holmquist F, Sundler F. Muscarinic receptor stimulation of phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the human urinary bladder. J Urol 1989; 141:324A (abstract 619).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E, Sjögren C. Adrenoceptors and cholinoceptors controlling noradrenaline release from adrenergic nerves in the urethra of rabbit and man. J Urol 1984; 131:1190–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E, Elbadawi A, Morgan E, Sjögren C. Interaction between adrenergic and cholinergic nerve terminals in the urinary bladder of rabbit, cat and man. J Urol 1987; 137:1017–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E, Sjögren C. Inhibitory α-adrenoceptors on chohnergic axon terminals in the urethra of rabbit and man. Neurourol Urodyn 1988; 6:449–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    d’Agostino G, Kilbinger H, Chiari MC, Grana E. Presynaptic inhibitory muscarinic receptors modulating 3H-acetylcholine release in the rat urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1986; 239:522–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tanagho EA, Miller ER. Initiation of voiding. Br J Urol 1970; 42:175–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rud T, Ulmsten U, Andersson K-E. Initiation of voiding in healthy women and those with stress incontinence. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1978; 57:457–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nergårdh A, Kinn A-C. Neurotransmission in activation of the contractile response in the human urinary bladder. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1983; 17:153–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kinder RB, Restorick JM, Mundy AR. A comparative study of detrusor muscle from normal, idiopathic unstable and hyperreflexic bladder. In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the International Continence Society. London, 1985, 170–1.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Restorick JM, Mundy AR. The density of cholinergic and alpha and beta adrenergic receptors in the normal and hyper-reflexic human detrusor. Br J Urol 1989; 63:32–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lapides J, Friend CR, Ajemian EP, Reus WF. A new method for diagnosing the neurogenic bladder. Univ Michigan Med Bull 1962; 28:166–80.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Glahn BE. Neurogenic bladder diagnosed pharmacologically on the basis of denervation supersensitivity. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1970; 4:13–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nilvebrant L, Ekström J, Malmberg L. Muscarinic receptor density in the rat urinary bladder after denervation, hypertrophy and urinary diversion. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1986; 59:306–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mattiasson A, Andersson K-E, Sjögren C, Sundin T, Uvelius B. Supersensitivity to carbachol in the parasympathetically decentralized feline urinary bladder. J Urol 1984; 131:562–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ek A, Aim P, Andersson K-E, Persson CGA. Adrenoceptor and cholinoceptor mediated responses of the isolated human urethra. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1977; 11:97–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Andersson K-E, Persson CGA, Aim P, Kullander S, Ulmsten U. Effects of acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and prostaglandins on the isolated perfused human fetal urethra. Acta Physiol Scand 1978; 104:394–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sundin T, Dahlström A, Norlen L, Svedmyr N. The sympathetic innervation and adrenoceptor function of the human lower urinary tract in the normal state and after parasympathetic denervation. Invest Urol 1977; 14:322–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Benson GS, McConnell JA, Wood JG. Adrenergic innervation of the human bladder body. J Urol 1979; 122:189–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wein AJ, Levin RM. Comparison of adrenergic receptor density in urinary bladder in man dog and rabbit. Surg Forum 1979; 30:576–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Amark P, Nergardh A, Kinn AC. The effect of noradrenaline on the contractile response of the urinary bladder. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1986; 20:203–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Nergårdh A, Boreus LO. Autonomic receptor function in the lower urinary tract of man and cat. Scand J Urol Nephrol 1972; 6:32–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Larsen JJ. α- and β-adrenoceptors in the detrusor muscle and bladder base of the pig and β- adrenoceptors in the detrusor of man. Br J Pharmacol 1979; 65:215–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eaton AC, Bates CP. An in vitro physiological study of normal and unstable human detrusor muscle. Br J Urol 1982; 54:653–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Benson GS, Wein AJ, Raezer DM, Corriere JJN. Adrenergic and cholinergic stimulation and blockade of the human bladder base. J Urol 1976; 116:174–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kunisawa Y, Kawabe K, Nijima T, Honda K, Takenaka T. A pharmacological study of alpha adrenergic receptor subtypes in smooth muscle of human urinary bladder base and prostatic urethra. J Urol 1985; 134:396–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rao MS, Bapna BC, Sharma PL, Chary KSN, Vaidyanathan S. Clinical import of beta-adrenergic activity in the proximal urethra. J Urol 1980; 124:254–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vaidyanathan S, Rao MS, Bapna BC, Chary KSN, Palaniswamy R. Beta-adrenergic activity in human proximal urethra: a study with terbutaline. J Urol 1980; 124:869–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nergårdh A, Boreus LO, Naglo AS. Characterization of the adrenergic beta-receptor in the urinary bladder of man and cat. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1977; 40:14–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Awad AA, Bruce G, Carrocampi JW, Lin M, Marks GS. Distribution of α- β-adrenoceptors in human urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 1974; 50:525–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Perlberg S, Caine M. Adrenergic response of bladder muscle in prostatic obstruction. Urology 1982;20:524–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Burnstock G, Cocks T, Crowe R, Kasakov L. Purinergic innervation of the guinea-pig urinary bladder. Br J Pharmacol 1978; 63:125–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Husted S, Sjögren C, Andersson K-E. Direct effects of adenosine and adenine nucleotides on isolated human urinary bladder and their influence on electrically induced contractions. J Urol 1983; 130:392–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Andersson K-E, Forman A. Effects of prostaglandins on the smooth muscle of the urinary tract. Acta Pharmacol Toxicol 1978; 43 (Suppl II): 90–5.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Andersson K-E, Sjögren C. Aspect on the physiology and pharmacology of the bladder and urethra. Progr Neurobiol 1982; 19:71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jeremy JY, Tsang V, Mikhailidis DP, Rogers H, Morgan RJ, Dandona P. Eicosanoid synthesis by human urinary bladder mucosa: pathological implications. Br J Urol 1987; 59:36–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Maggi CA, Evangelista S, Grimaldi G, Santicioli P, Gioletti A, Meli A. Evidence for the involvement of arachidonic acid metabolites in spontaneous and drug-induced contractions of rat urinary bladder. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1984; 230:500–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jeremy JY, Mikhailidis DP, Dandona P. The rat urinary bladder produces prostacyclin as well as other prostaglandins. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes Med 1984; 16:235–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Maggi CA, Barbanti G, Santicioli P et al. Cystometric evidence that capsaicin-sensitive nerves modulate the afferent branch of micturition reflex in humans. J Urol 1989; 142:150–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Larsen J J, Ottesen B, Fahrenkrug J, Fahrenkrug L. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the male genitourinary tract. Concentration and motor effect. Invest Urol 1981; 19:211–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Klarskov P, Gerstenberg T, Haid T. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide influence on lower urinary tract smooth muscle from human and pig. J Urol 1984; 131:1000–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kinder RB, Mundy AR. Inhibition of spontaneous contractile activity in isolated human detrusor muscle strips by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. Br J Urol 1985; 57:20–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sjögren C, Andersson K-E, Mattiasson A. Effects of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide on isolated urethral and urinary bladder smooth muscle from rabbit and man. J Urol 1985; 133:136–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gu J, Restorick JM, Blank MA et al. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the normal and unstable bladder. Br J Urol 1983; 55:645–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kinder RB, Restorick JM, Mundy AR. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in the hyperreflexic neuropathic bladder. Br J Urol; 57:289–91.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kalbfleisch RE, Daniel EE. The role of substance P in the human urinary bladder. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 1987; 285:238–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dion S, Corcos J, Carmel M, Drapeau G, Regoli D. Substance P and neurokinins as stimulants of the human isolated urinary bladder. Neuropeptides 1988; 11:83–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Maggi CA, Santicioli P, Patacchini R et al. Contractile response of the human isolated urinary bladder to neurokinins: involvement of NK-2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol 1988; 145:335–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Maggi CA, Santicioli P, Patacchini R et al. Galanin: a potent modulator of excitatory neurotransmission in the human urinary bladder. Eur J Pharmacol 1987; 143:135–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Andersson K-E, Mattiasson A, Sjögren C. Electrically induced relaxation of the noradrenaline contracted isolated urethra from rabbit and man. J Urol 1983; 129:210–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Klarskov P, Gerstenberg TC, Ramirez D, Haid T. Non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic nerve mediated relaxation of trigone, bladder neck and urethral smooth muscle in vitro. J Urol 1983; 129:848–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Speakman MJ, Walmsley D, Brading AF. An in vitro pharmacological study of the human trigone — a site of non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic neurotransmission. Br J Urol 1988; 61:304–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • K.-E. Andersson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations