Advertisement

The Biology of Platelet Volume Heterogeneity

  • C. B. Thompson
  • R. L. Monroy
  • R. R. Skelly
  • P. G. Quinn
  • J. A. Jakubowski

Abstract

Platelet volume heterogeneity has been recognized by haematologists for over 100 years (Bizzozero 1882; Olef 1936). Despite this, the aetiology and the significance of platelet volume heterogeneity continues to be a controversial subject. Several years ago our laboratory developed a technique for the separation of platelets into size-dependent subpopulations using counterflow centrifugation (Thompson et al. 1982). Using this newly devised cell separation technique, we have been able to address a number of questions concerning the aetiology and significance of platelet volume heterogeneity. Platelets separated into size-dependent subpopulations contain platelet granular contents in direct proportion to their volume (Thompson et al. 1982, 1983a). The intrinsic function of size-dependent platelet subpopulations is similar when function is measured as a percentage of granular contents that are released following activation by any of a variety of platelet agonists (Thompson et al. 1983a). However, because of the volume-dependent differences in the absolute amounts of intrinsic granular and membrane components, the ability of platelets to affect each other and their environment as measured by aggregation and total amounts of granular contents released is proportional to their size. These results confirmed that platelet volume correlates with absolute platelet function (Mannucci and Sharp 1967; Karpatkin 1978).

Keywords

Platelet Count Mean Platelet Volume Platelet Volume Platelet Production Large Platelet 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bessman JD (1984) The relation of megakaryocyte ploidy to platelet volume. Am J Hematol 16:161–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bizzozero G (1882) Ueber einen neuen Formbestrandtheil des Blutes und dessen Rolle bei Thrombose und der Blutgerinnung. Virch Arch 90:261–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Corash L, Shafer B, Perlow M (1978) Heterogeneity of human whole blood platelet subpopulations. II. Use of a subhuman primate model to analyze the relationship between density and platelet age. Blood 52:726–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Corash L, Chen HY, Levin J, Baker G, Lu H, Mok Y (1987) Regulation of thrombopoiesis: effects of the degree of thrombocytopenia on megakaryocyte ploidy and platelet volume. Blood 70:177–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Evatt BL, Levin J (1969) Measurement of thrombopoiesis in rabbits using 75selenomethionine. J Clin Invest 48:1615–1626PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frojmovic MM, Milton JG (1982) Human platelets size, shape, and related functions in health and disease. Physiol Rev 62:185–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Ginsburg AD, Aster RH (1972) Changes associated with platelet aging. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 27:407–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Jakubowski JA, Thompson CB, Vaillancourt R, Valeri CR, Deykin D (1983) Arachidonic acid metabolism by platelets of differing size. Br J Haematol 53:503–511PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Karpatkin S (1969) Heterogeneity of human platelets. I. Metabolic and kinetic evidence suggestive of young and old platelets. J Clin Invest 48:1073–1082PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Karpatkin S (1978) Heterogeneity of human platelets. VI. Correlation of platelet function with platelet volume. Blood 51:307–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Levin J, Bessman JB (1983) The inverse relation between platelet volume and platelet number: abnormalities in hematologic disease and evidence that platelet size does not correlate with platelet age. J Lab Clin Med 101:295–307PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Mannucci PM, Sharp AA (1967) Platelet volume and shape in relation to aggregation and adhesion. Br J Haematol 13:604–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Martin JF, Trowbridge EA, Salmon GL, Slater DN (1982) The relationship between platelet and megakaryocyte volumes. Thrombosis Res 28:447–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Martin JF, Plumb J, Kilbey RS, Kishk YT (1983) Changes in volume and density of platelets in myocardial infarction. Br Med J 287:456–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Monroy RL, Skelly RR, Thompson CB, Donahue RE, MacVittie TJ (1989) Modulation of platelet production by in vivo infusion of GM-CSF into primates. Manuscript in preparationGoogle Scholar
  16. Olef I (1936) The differential platelet count: its clinical significance. Arch Int Med 57:1163–1185Google Scholar
  17. Paulus JM (1975) Platelet size in man. Blood 46:321–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Thompson CB (1986) From precursor to product: how do megakaryocytes produce platelets? In: Levine RF, Williams N, Levin J, Evatt BL (eds) Megakaryocyte development and function: progress in clinical and biological research, vol 215. Liss, New York, pp 361–371Google Scholar
  19. Thompson CB, Jakubowski JA (1988) The pathophysiology and clinical relevance of platelet heterogeneity. Blood 72:1–8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Thompson CB, Eaton KA, Princiotta SM, Rushin CA, Valeri CR (1982) Size dependent platelet subpopulations: relationship of platelet volume to ultrastructure, enzymatic activity, and function. Br J Haematol 50:509–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Thompson CB, Jakubowski JA, Quinn PG, Deykin D, Valeri R (1983a) Platelet size as a determinant of platelet function. J Lab Clin Med 101:205–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Thompson CB, Love DG, Quinn PG, Valeri CR (1983b) Platelet size does not correlate with platelet age. Blood 62:487–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Thompson CB, Diaz DD, Quinn PG, Lapins M, Kurtz SR, Valeri CR (1983c) The role of anticoagulation in the measurement of platelet volumes. Am J Clin Pathol 80:327–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Tong M, Seth P, Penington DG (1987) Proplatelets and stress platelets. Blood 69:522–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. von Behrens WE (1975) Mediterranean macrothrombocytopenia. Blood 46:199–208PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. B. Thompson
  • R. L. Monroy
  • R. R. Skelly
  • P. G. Quinn
  • J. A. Jakubowski

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations