Ischaemic Acute Renal Failure in an Intact Animal Model
Most experimental studies of ischaemic acute renal failure have been devoted to defining the mechanism of loss of excretory function in the damaged kidney and relatively little consideration has been given to the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to the occurrence of ischaemia; yet clinical strategies for prevention of acute renal failure in the Intensive Care Unit might best be drawn from such an understanding. In respect of this we have drawn a parallel with myocardial ischaemia where knowledge of the pathophysiology of the coronary circulation has provided a rational basis for therapeutics. Similar research in nephrology has been hampered by the difficulty of detecting ischaemia in the intact kidney either clinically or experimentally, in contrast with the myocardium where chest pain or changes in the surface electrocardiogram provide markers of ischaemia and permit physiological evaluation and timing of therapeutic intervention. This chapter describes our experience with the use of 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) to detect renal ischaemia in a model of haemorrhagic shock in the rat.
KeywordsAcute Renal Failure Renal Ischaemia Inulin Clearance Perfuse Kidney Intensive Therapy Unit
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bell PD, Reddington M (1983) Intracellular calcium in the transmission of tubuloglomerular feedback signals. Am J Physiol 245: 295–302Google Scholar
- Chan L, Ledingham JGG, Dixon JA, Thulborn KR, Waterton JC, Radda GK, Ross BD (1982) Acute renal failure: a proposed mechanism based upon 31P nuclear magnetic resonance studies in the rat. In: Eliahou HE (ed.) Acute renal failure. John Libbey, London, pp 35–41Google Scholar
- Cheung JY, Bonventre JV, Malis CD, Leaf A (1982) Calcium and ischemic injury. N Engl J Med 314: 1670–1676Google Scholar
- Endre ZH, Ratcliffe PJ, Nicholls LG, Ledingham JGG, Tange JD, Radda GK (1987) 31Phosphorus NMR studies of mercuric chloride nephrotoxicity in the in vitro perfused rat kidney. In: Boeh PH, Lock EA (eds) Nephrotoxicity: extrapolation from in vitro to in vivo and animals to man. Plenum Press, London, pp 503–508Google Scholar
- Endre ZH, Ratcliffe PJ, Tange JD, Ferguson DJP, Radda GK, Ledingham JGG (1988) Erythrocytes alter the pattern of renal hypoxic injury: predominance of proximal tubular injury with moderate hypoxia. Clin Sci (in press)Google Scholar
- Franke H, Barlow CH, Chance B (1976) Oxygen delivery in perfused rat kidney: NADH fluorescence and renal functional state. Am J Physiol 231: 1081–1089Google Scholar
- Kreisberg JI, Bulger RE, Trump BF, Nagle RB (1976) Effects of transient hypotension on the structure and function of rat kidney. Virchows Arch [Cell Pathol] 22: 121–133Google Scholar
- Ratcliffe PJ, Endre ZH, Tange JD, Ledingham JGG, Radda GK (1987) Renal energetics and cellular injury in haemorrhagic hypotension. Tenth International Congress of Nephrology (abstract)Google Scholar
- Trueta J, Barclay AE, Daniel DPM, Franklin KJ, Prichard MML (1947) Studies of the renal circulation. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar