Advertisement

The Digestion of Starches and Sugars Present in the Diet

  • B. Flourié
Part of the ILSI Human Nutrition Reviews book series (ILSI HUMAN)

Abstract

In standard nutritional texts, the digestion and absorption of dietary carbohydrates is usually presented in simple terms. Monosaccharides are absorbed directly, whereas disaccharides are first hydrolysed in the brush border of the mucosal cells by a series of specific disaccharidase enzymes. Dietary polysaccharides have classically been considered to fall into two broad categories: those that are hydrolysed by endogenous enzymes, the available polysaccharides, and those that are not, the unavailable polysaccharides. Only starch and glycogen are considered to fall into the available category of dietary polysaccharides. This simple nutritional concept appears to run counter to many observations of the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch in vitro and in vivo.

Keywords

Gastric Emptying Resistant Starch Glycaemic Index Starch Digestion Human Small Intestine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rosenblum JL, Irwin CL, Alpers DH (1988) Starch and glucose oligosaccharides protect salivary-type amylase activity at acid pH. Am J Physiol 254: G775 - G780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fried M, Abramson S, Meyer JH (1987) Passage of salivary amylase through the stomach in humans. Dig Dis Sci 32: 1097–1103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alpers DH (1987) Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates and proteins. In: Johnson LR (ed) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Raven Press, New York, pp 1469–1487Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rosensweig NS, Herman, RH (1968) Control of jejunal sucrase and maltase activity by dietary sucrose or fructose in man. J Clin Invest 47: 2253–2262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hopfer U (1987) Membrane transport mechanisms for hexoses and amino acids in the small intestine. In: Johnson LR (ed) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Raven Press, New York, pp 1499–1526Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stone-Dorshow T, Levitt MD (1987) Gaseous response to ingestion of a poorly absorbed fructooligosaccharide sweetener. Am J Clin Nutr 46: 61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nilsson U, Jägerstad H (1987) Hydrolysis of lactitol, maltitol and Palatinit® by human intestinal biopsies. Br J Nutr 58: 199–206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS Taylor RH et al. (1981) Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 362–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brand JC, Nicholson PL, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS (1985) Food processing and the glycemic index. Am J Clin Nutr 42: 1192–1196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ross SW, Brand JC, Thorburn AW, Truswell AS (1987) Glycemic index of processed wheat products. Am J Clin Nutr 46: 631–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Collier G, McLean A, O’Dea K (1984) Effect of co-ingestion of fat on the metabolic responses to slowly and rapidly absorbed carbohydrates. Diabetologia 26: 50–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Collier G, O’Dea K (1983) The effect of co-ingestion of fat on glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory-polypeptide responses to carbohydrate and protein. Am J Clin Nutr 37: 941–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Estrich D, Ravnick A, Schlierf G, Fukayama G, Kinsell L (1967) Effects of co-ingestion of fat and protein upon carbohydrate-induced hyperglycemia. Diabetes 16: 232–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Thorburn AW, Brand JC, Truswell AS (1987) Slowly digested and absorbed carbohydrate in traditional bushfoods; a protective factor against diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr 45: 98–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wong S, Traianedes K, O’Dea K (1985) Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in legumes. Am J Clin Nutr 42: 38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Coulston AM, Hollenbeck CB, Liu GC et al. (1984) Effects of source of dietary carbohydrate on plasma glucose, insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses to test meals in subjects with noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 40: 965–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolever TMS, Nuttall FQ, Lee R et al. (1985) Prediction of the relative blood glucose response of mixed meals using the white bread glycemic index. Diabetes Care 8: 418–428PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Levitt MD, Hirsh P, Fetzer CA, Sheahan M, Levine AS (1987) H2 excretion after ingestion of complex carbohydrates. Gastroenterology 92: 383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Evard D, Trylezinski A, Cosnes J, Antoine JM, Le Quintrec Y (1987) Digestibilité in vivo des amidons du régime sans résidus. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 11: 203A (abstract)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bond JH, Levitt MD (1976) Quantitative measurement of lactose absorption. Gastroenterology 70: 1058–1062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kolars JC, Levitt MD, Aouji M, Savaiano DA (1984) Yogurt — an autodigesting source of lactose. N Engl J Med 310: 1–3PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bond JH, Levitt MD (1972) Use of pulmonary hydrogen (H2) measurements to quantitate carbohydrate absorption. J Clin Invest 51: 1219–1225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anderson IH, Levine AS, Levitt MD (1981) Incomplete absorption of the carbohydrate in all-purpose wheat flour. N Eng1 J Med 304: 891–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rumessen JJ, Gudman-Hoyer E (1986) Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides. Gut 27: 1161–1168Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Fritz M, Siebert G, Kasper H (1985) Dose dependence of breath hydrogen and methane in healthy volunteers after ingestion of a commercial disaccharide mixture, Palatinit®. Br J Nutr 54: 389–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Flourié B, Florent C, Etanchaud F, Evard D, Franchisseur C, Rambaud JC (1988) Starch absorption by healthy man evaluated by lactulose hydrogen breath test. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1985) Digestion of the polysaccharides of some cereal foods in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 42: 778–787PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chapman RW, Sillery JK, Graham MM, Saunders DR (1985) Absorption of starch by healthy ileostomates: effect of transit time and of carbohydrate load. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 1244–1248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1986) Digestion of the carbohydrates of banana (Musa paradisiaca sapientum) in the human small intestine. Am J Clin Nutr 44: 42–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Saunders DR, Wiggins HS (1981) Conservation of mannitol, lactulose, and raffinose by the human colon. Am J Physiol 241: G397 — G402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Phillips SF, Giller J (1973) The contribution of the colon to electrolyte and water conservation in man. J Lab Clin Med 81: 733–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gorbach SL, Nahas L, Weinstein L, Levitan R, Patterson JF (1967) Studies of intestinal microflora. IV. The microflora of ileostomy effluent: a unique microbial ecology. Gastroenterology 53: 874–880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Finegold SM, Sutter VL, Boyle JD, Shimada K (1970) The normal flora of ileostomy and transverse colostomy effluents. J Infect Dis 122: 376–381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stephen AM, Haddad AC, Phillips SF (1983) Passage of carbohydrate into the colon. Direct measurements in humans. Gastroenterology 85: 589–595Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Flourié B, Leblond A, Florent C, Rautureau M, Bisalli A, Rambaud JC (1988) Starch malabsorption and breath gas excretion in healthy humans consuming low-and high-starch diets. Gastroenterology 95: 356–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Debongnie JC, Newcomer AD, McGill DB, Phillips SF (1979) Absorption of nutrients in lactase deficiency. Dig Dis Sci 24: 225–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Marteau P, Flourié B, Franchisseur C, Pochart P, Desjeux JF, Rambaud JC (1988) Role of the microbial lactase activity from yogurt on the intestinal absorption of lactose. Gastroenterology 94:A284 (abstr)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Beaugerie L, Flourié B, Verwaerde F, Franchisseur C, Dupas H, Rambaud JC (1988) Tolerance and absorption along the human intestine of large chronic loads of three polyols. Gastroenterology 94: A29 (abstr)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Mobassaleh M, Montgomery RK, Biller JA, Grand RJ (1985) Development of carbohydrate absorption in the fetus and neonate. Pediatrics 75 [Supp1]: 160–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee PC, Nord KS, Lebenthal E (1981) Digestibility of starches in infants. In: Lebenthal E (ed) Textbook of gastroenterology and nutrition in infancy. Raven Press, New York, pp 423–433Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rossiter MA, Barrownan JA, Dand A, Wharton BA (1974) Amylase content of mixed saliva in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 63: 389–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sevenhuysen GP, Holodinsky C, Dawes C (1980) Development of salivary amylase in infants from birth to five months. Am J Clin Nutr 39: 584–588Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Maclean WC, Fink BB (1980) Lactose malabsorption by premature infants: magnitude and clinical significance J Pediatr 97: 383–388Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Henning SJ (1987) Functional development of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Johnson LR (ed) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Raven Press, New York, pp 285–300Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dahlqvist A (1983) Digestion of lactose. In: Delmont J (ed) Milk intolerances and rejection. S Karger, Basel, pp 11–16Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gray GM (1981) Carbohydrate absorption and malabsorption. In: Johnson LR (ed) Physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Raven Press, New York, pp 1063–1072Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Burgio GR, Flatz G, Barbara C et al. (1984) Prevalence of primary adult lactose malabsorption and awareness of milk intolerance in Italy. Am J Clin Nutr 39: 100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cook GC, Al-Torki MT (1975) High intestinal lactase concentrations in adult Arabs in Saudi Arabia. Br Med J iii: 135–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cuddenec Y, Delbrück H, Flatz G (1982) Distribution of the adult lactase phenotype — lactose absorber and malabsorber — in a group of 131 army recruits. Gastroenterol Clin Biol 6: 776–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kretchmer N, Ransome-Kuti O, Hurwitz R, Dungy C, Alakija W (1971) Intestinal absorption of lactose in Nigerian ethnic groups. Lancet II 392–395Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    O’Morain C, Loubière M, Rampal L, Sudaka L, Delmont J (1978) Etude comparative de l’insuffisance en lactase de deux populations adultes différentes. Acta Gastroenterol Belg 41: 56–63PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Brand JC, Darnton-Hill I, Gracey MS, Spargo RM (1985) Lactose malabsorption in Australian aboriginal children. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 620–622PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cavalli-Sforza LT, Strata A, Barone A, Cucurachi L (1987) Primary adult lactose malabsorption in Italy: regional differences in prevalence and relationship to lactose intolerance and milk consumption. Am J Clin Nutr 45: 748–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ferguson A, MacDonald DM, Brydon WG (1984) Prevalence of lactase deficiency in British adults. Gut 25: 163–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Feibusch JM, Holt PR (1982) Impaired absorptive capacity for carbohydrate in the aging human. Dig Dis Sci 27: 1095–1100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Thomson ABR, Keelan M (1986) The aging gut. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 64: 30–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Asp NG, Björck I, Holm J, Nyman M, Siljeström M (1987) Enzyme resistant starch fractions and dietary fibre. Scand J Gastroenterol 22 [Suppl 129]: 29–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Holm J, Lundquist I, Björck I, Eliasson AC, Asp NG (1988) Degree of starch gelatinization, digestion rate of starch in vitro, and metabolic response in rats. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 1010–1016PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wootton M, Bamunarachchi A (1980) Application of differential scanning calorimetry to starch gelatinization. III. Effect of sucrose and sodium chloride. Starch 32: 126–129Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hoseney RC, Atwell WA, Lineback DR (1977) Scanning electron microscopy of starch isolated from baked products. Cereal Foods World 22: 56–60Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jenkins DJA, Wolever TMS, Taylor RH et al. (1980) Rate of digestion of foods and postprandial glycaemia in normal and diabetic subjects. Br Med J 280: 14–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Würsch P, Del Vedovo S, Koellreutter B (1986) Cell structure and starch nature as key determinants of the digestion rate of starch in legume. Am J Clin Nutr 43: 25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Heaton KW, Marcus SN, Emmett PM, Bolton CH (1988) Particle size of wheat, maize, and oat test meals: effects on plasma glucose and insulin responses and on the rate of starch digestion in vitro. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 675–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    O’Dea K, Snow P, Nestel P (1981) Rate of starch hydrolysis in vitro as a predictor of metabolic responses to complex carbohydrate in vivo. Am J Clin Nutr 34: 1991–1993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Berry CS (1986) Resistant starch: formation and measurement of starch that survives exhaustive digestion with amylolytic enzymes during the determination of dietary fibre. J Cereal Sci 4: 301–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Englyst HN, Cummings JH (1987) Digestion of polysaccharides of potato in the small intestine of man. Am J Clin Nutr 45: 423–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Canary J (1988) Effect of starch structure on glucose and insulin responses in adults. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 428–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sandberg AS, Andersson H, Kivistö B, Sandström B (1986) Extrusion cooking of a high-fibre cereal product. Br J Nutr 55: 245–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Florent C, Flourié B, Maures M, Pfeiffer A, Rongier M, Bernier JJ (1987) Le gluten modifie-t-il le transit et l’absorption dans l’intestin grêle des amidons panifiés? Gastroentérol Clin Biol 11: 202A (abstract)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hurrell RF, Carpenter KJ (1977) Maillard reactions in foods. In: Hoyem T, Kvale O (eds) Physical, chemical and biological changes in food caused by thermal processing. Applied Science Publishers, London, pp 168–184Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jenkins DJA, Jenkins AL, Wolever TMS, Thomson CH, Rao AV (1986) Simple and complex carbohydrates. Nutr Rev 44: 44–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Solomons NW, Garcia-Ibanez R, Viteri FE (1979) Reduced rate of breath hydrogen (H2) excretion with lactose tolerance tests in young children using whole milk. Am J Clin Nutr 32: 783–786PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Solomons NW, Guerrero AM, Torun B (1985) Dietary manipulation of postprandial colonic lactose fermentation. I. Effect of solid foods in a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 41: 199–208PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Martini MC, Savaiano DA (1988) Reduced intolerance symptoms from lactose consumed during a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 47: 57–60PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Welsh JD, Hall WH (1977) Gastric emptying of lactose and milk in subjects with lactose malabsorption. Dig Dis Sci 22: 1060–1063CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Nguyen KN, Welsh JD, Manion CV, Ficken VJ (1982) Effect of fiber on breath hydrogen response and symptoms after oral lactose in lactose malabsorbers. Am J Clin Nutr 35: 1347–1351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ladas S, Papanikos J, Arapakis G (1982) Lactose malabsorption in Greek adults: correlation of small bowel transit time with the severity of lactose intolerance. Gut 23: 968–973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Read NW, Welch IML, Austen CJ et al. (1986) Swallowing food without chewing: a simple way to reduce postprandial glycaemia. Br J Nutr 55: 43–47PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Holgate AM, Read NW (1983) Relationship between small bowel transit time and absorption of a solid meal. Influence of metoclopramide, magnesium sulfate, and lactulose. Dig Dis Sci 28: 812819Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Thornton JR, Dryden A, Kelleher J, Losowsky MS (1987) Super-efficient starch absorption. A risk factor for colonic neoplasia? Dig Dis Sci 32: 1088–1091PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

References

  1. 1.
    Zeisenitz SC, Siebert G (1987) The metabolism and utilisation of polyols and other bulk sweeteners compared with sugar. In: Development in sweeteners, vol 3, Elsevier Applied Science, Amsterdam, pp 109–154Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Torsdottir I, Alpsten M, Andersson H et al. (1984) Effect of different starchy foods in composite meals on gastric emptying rate and glucose metabolism. Hum Nutr Clin Nutr 38C: 329–338PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Torsdottir I, Alpsten M, Andersson H, Schweizer TF, Tölli TK, Würsch P (1989) Gastric emptying and glycemic response following ingestion of mashed bean or potato flakes in composite meals. Am J Clin Nutr (in press)Google Scholar

Reference

  1. 1.
    Hiele M, Ghoos Y, Rutgeerts P, Vanttappen G (1989) Starch digestion in normal subjects and patients with pancreatic disease using a 13CO2 breath test. Gastroenterology 96: 503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. Flourié

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations