Radiation Therapy: its Integration with Surgery and Chemotherapy in the Management of Patients with Urological Malignancy

  • W. U. Shipley
Part of the Clinical Practice in Urology book series (PRACTICE UROLOG)

Abstract

The combination of radiation therapy with surgery and/or chemotherapy in the treatment of urological malignancy varies widely in this heterogeneous group of tumours, both in usefulness in the curative management of the primary tumour as well as in palliation (and cure in testis cancer) of patients with metastatic disease. Thus, these combinations — radiation and surgery, radiation and chemotherapy — will be dealt with separately and by tumour site.

Keywords

Radium Oncol Doxorubicin Methotrexate Cyclophosphamide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anscher MS, Prosnitz LR (1987) Postoperative radiotherapy for patients with carcinoma of the prostate undergoing radical prostatectomy with positive surgical margins: seminal vesicle involvement and/or penetration through the capsule. J Urol 138: 1407–1412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Asbell SO, Martz KL, Pilepich MV et al. (1987) Impact of surgical staging in evaluating the radiotherapeutic outcome in RTOG phase III study for stage A2 and B prostatic carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: suppl. 1: 2Google Scholar
  3. Grossman HB, Whitmore WF Jr, Hilaris B et al. (1982) Iodine-125 implantation for carcinoma of the prostate: further follow-up of the first 100 cases. Urol 20: 591–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Batata MA, Chu FC, Hilaris BS et al. (1981) Preoperative whole pelvis versus true pelvis irradiation and/or cystectomy for bladder cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7: 1349–1354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Batman TJ, Montie JE, Bukowski RN et al. (1986) Intra-arterial chemotherapy as an adjuvant to surgery in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. J Urol 135: 256–260Google Scholar
  6. Battermann JJ, Tierie AH (1986) Results of implantation for T1 and T2 bladder tumors. Radiother Oncol 1986: 5: 85–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Blandy JP, England HR, Evans SJW et al. (1980) T3 bladder cancer — the case for salvage cystectomy. Br J Urol 52: 506–510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blandy JP, Jenkins BJ, Fowler CG et al. (1988) Radical radiotherapy and salvage cystectomy for T2 and T3 cancer of the bladder. In: Smith PH, Pavone-Macaluso MM (eds) The treatment of advanced prostate and bladder cancer. A. R. Liss, Inc, New York, 447–452Google Scholar
  9. Bloom HCG, Hendry WR, Wallace DM et al. (1983) Treatment of T3 bladder cancer: a controlled trial of preoperative radiotherapy and radical cystectomy versus radical radiotherapy, second report and review. Br J Urol 54: 136–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bosch RJ, Kurth KH, Schroeder FH (1987) Surgical treatment of locally advanced (T3) prostatic carcinoma: early results. J Urol 138: 816–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brookland RK, Richter MP (1985) Postoperative irradiation of transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis and ureter. J Urol 133: 952–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Byar DP, Corle DK (1981) VACURG randomized trial of radical prostatectomy for stages I and II prostate cancer. Veterans Administration Cooperative Urological Research Group. Urology [suppl. 4] 17: 7–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Clemm C, Hartenstein R, Willich N et al. (1986) Vinblastine-ifosfamide-cisplatin treatment of bulky seminoma. Cancer 58: 2203–2207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. DeLaney TF, Shipley WU, O’Leary MP, Biggs PJ, Prout GR Jr (1986) Preoperative irradiation, lymphadenectomy, and Iodine-125 implantation for patients with localized carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 1779–1785PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dosoretz DE, Shipley WU, Blitzer PH et al. (1981) Megavoltage irradiation for pure testicular seminoma: results and patterns of failure. Cancer 48: 2184–2190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Earle JD, Bagshaw MA, Kaplan HS (1973) Supervoltage radiation therapy of testicular tumors. A JR 117: 653–661Google Scholar
  17. Finney R (1973) Radiotherapy in the treatment of hypemephroma: a clinical trial. Br J Urol 45: 258–269PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Forman JD, Wharam MD, Lee DJ, Zinreich ES, Order SE (1986) Definitive radiotherapy following prostatectomy: results and complications. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 185–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fossâ SD, Kjolseth I, Lund G (1982) Radiotherapy of metastasis from renal cancer. Eur Urol 8: 340–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Freiha SF, Bagshaw MA (1984) Carcinoma of the prostate: results of post-irradiation biopsy. Prostate 5: 19–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gibbons RP, Cole BS, Richardson RB, Correa GJ Jr, Brannen GE, Mason JT, Taylor WJ, Hafermann MD (1986) Adjuvant radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy: results and complications. J Urol 135: 65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gibbons RP, Correa RJ, Brannen GE (1984) Total prostatectomy for localized prostatic cancer. J Urol 131: 73–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Greene N, Bodner H, Broth E et al. (1984) Improved control of bulky prostatic carcinoma withGoogle Scholar
  24. sequential estrogen and radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 10: 971–976Google Scholar
  25. Greiner R, Skaleric C, Veraguth P (1977) The prognostic significance of ureteral obstruction inGoogle Scholar
  26. carcinoma of the bladder. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 1095–1102Google Scholar
  27. Grossman HB, Whitmore WF Jr, Hilaris B et al. (1982) Iodine-125 implantation for carcinoma of the prostate: further follow-up of the first 100 cases. Urol 20: 591–598PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Halperin EC, Harisiadis L (1983) The role of radiation therapy in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 51: 614–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hamilton C, Horwich A, Peckham MJ et al. (1986) Radiotherapy for stage I testis seminoma: results of treatment and complications. Radiat Ther Oncol 6: 115–120Google Scholar
  30. Hanks GE (1988) National practiced results of external beam radiation therapy for clinically localized prostatic cancer. NIH Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, June 15–17, 1987 NCI Monographs 7: 75–84Google Scholar
  31. Radiation Therapy: its Integration with Surgery and Chemotherapy 21Google Scholar
  32. Hanks GE, Herring DF, Kramer S (1981) Patterns of care outcome studies results of the national practice in seminoma of the testis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7: 1413–1417PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Heney NM, Nocks BN, Daly JJ et al. (1981) Prognostic factors in carcinoma of the ureter. J Urol 125: 632–636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Jakse G, Frommhold H, Nedden DZ (1985) Combined radiation and chemotherapy for locally advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Cancer 55: 1659–1664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jewett HJ (1980) Radical perineal prostatectomy for palpable, clinically localized, non-obstructive cancer: experience at the Johns Hopkins Hospital: 1909–1963. J Urol 124: 492–497PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Jewett HJ, Walsh PC (1982) Radical perineal prostatectomy for clinical stage T2 carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 127: 704–709PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Johansson A, Angerval L, Bengtsson U et al. (1976) A clinicopathologic and prognostic study of epithelial tumors of the renal pelvis. Cancer 37: 1376–1381PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Juusela H, Malmio K, Alfthan D et al. (1977) Preoperative irradiation in the treatment of renal adenocarcinoma. Scand J Urol Nephrol 11: 277–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kjar M, Frederiksen PL, Engelholm SA (1987) Postoperative radiotherapy in stages II and III renal adenocarcinoma: a randomized trial by the Copenhagen renal cancer study group. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: 665–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kubo HD, Shipley WU (1982) Reduction of the scatter dose to the testicle outside the radiation treatment fields. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 8: 1741–1745PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lange PH et al. (1988) Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy following radical prostatectomy. NIH Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, June 15–17, 1987. NCI Monographs 7: 141–150Google Scholar
  42. Livingston RB et al. (1987) The management of clinically localized prostatic cancer: NIH concensus development conference. JAMA 258: 727–730Google Scholar
  43. Loehrer PJ, Birch R, Williams SD et al. (1987) Chemotherapy of metastatic seminoma: the Southeastern Cancer Study Group experience. J Clin Oncol 5: 1212–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Logothetis CJ, Samuels ML, Ogden S et al. (1985) Cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, and cisplatin chemotherapy for patients with locally advanced urothelial tumors with or without nodal metastases. J Urol 134: 460–464PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Maier JG, Sulak MH (1973) Radiation therapy in malignant testis tumors: Part I: seminoma. Cancer 32: 1212–1216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Matsumoto L, Kakizoe T, Mikuriya S et al. (1981) Clinical evaluation of intraoperative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Cancer 47: 509–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mazeron JJ, Marinello G, Pierquin B et al. (1985) Treatment of bladder tumors by iridium-192 implantation: the Creteil technique. Radiother Oncol 4: 111–119PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meyers FJ, Palmer JM, Freiha FS et al. (1985) The fate of the bladder in patients with metastatic bladder cancer treated with cisplatin, methotrexate, and vinblastine: a Northern California Oncology Group Study. J Urol 134: 1118–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Peschel RE, Fogel T, Kazinski B et al. (1985) Iodine-125 implants for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1777–1782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Motzer R, Bosl G, Heelan R et al. (1987) Residual mass: an indication for surgery in patients with advanced seminoma following systemic chemotherapy. J Clin Oncol 5: 1064–1070PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Neglia WJ, Hussey DH, Johnson DE (1977) Megavoltage radiation therapy for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2: 873–882PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Oliver RTD (1984) Single-agent cisplatin for metastatic seminoma. Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol [abstr.] 3: 162Google Scholar
  53. Oliver RTD, England HR, Risdon RA et al. (1984) Methotrexate in the treatment of metastatic and recurrent primary transitional cell carcinoma. J Urol 131: 483–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Onufrey V, Mohiuddin M (1985) Radiation therapy in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 2007–2009PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Parsons JJ, Thar TL, Bova FS et al. (1981) An evaluation of split-course irradiation for pelvic malignancies. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 6: 175–181Google Scholar
  56. Paulson DF, Stone AR, Walther PH, Tucker JA, Cox EB (1986) Radical prostatectomy: anatomical predictors of success or failure. J Urol 136: 1041–1044PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Peckham MJ (1981) Testicular tumors: investigation and staging. In: Peckham MJ (ed) The management of testicular tumors. Edwin Arnold, Ltd, London. pp 89–101Google Scholar
  58. Perez CA (1983) Carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9: 1427–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Peschel RE, Fogel T, Kazinski B et al. (1985) Iodine-125 implants for carcinoma of the prostate. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1777–1782PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Pilepich MV (1988) Radiation therapy in patients with localized prostatic carcinoma: RTOG data. NIH Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, June 15–17, 1987. NCI Monographs 7: 61–66Google Scholar
  61. Pilepich MV, Krall JM, John MJ et al. (1987) Hormonal cytoreduction in locally advanced carcinoma of the prostate treated with definitive radiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys [suppl. 1] 13: 104–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pilepich MV, Krall JM, Sause WT et al. (1987) Prognostic factor in carcinoma of the prostate — analysis of RTOG study 75–06. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: 339–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Prout GR Jr. (1984) Radiation therapy and cystectomy. Urol [suppl 4] 23: 104–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Prout GR Jr, Kaufman SD, Shipley WU et al. (1988) Combined therapies in the treatment of patients with muscle-invading bladder carcinoma: a preliminary report of a bladder-sparing effort. Abstract submitted to the American Urologic Association Meeting, June 1988, Boston, MassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  65. Quilty PM, Duncan W (1986) Primary radical radiotherapy for T3 transitional cell cancer of the bladder: an analysis of survival and control. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 12: 853–860PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rafla S (1970) Renal cell carcinoma. Cancer 25: 26–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Ray GR, Bagshaw MA, Freiha F (1984) External beam radiation salvage for residual or recurrent local tumor following radical prostatectomy. J Urol 132: 926–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Richards B, Bastable JRG, Freedman L et al. (1983) Adjuvant chemotherapy with adriamycin and 5- Fluorouracil in T3, Nx, MO bladder cancer treated with radiotherapy. Br J Urol 55: 386–391Google Scholar
  69. Sauer R, Schrott KM, Dunst J et al. (1987) Improved response rate of T3/T4 carcinomas of the urinary bladder treated by radiotherapy under cisplatin-sensitization. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys [Suppl. 1] 13: 101–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Scardino PT, Wheeler TM (1988) Local control of prostatic cancer with radiation therapy: frequency and significance of positive post-irradiation prostatic biopsy results. NIH Consensus Development Conference, Bethesda, Maryland, June 15–17, 1987. NCI Monographs 7: 95–106Google Scholar
  71. Scardino PT, Franel JM, Weiler TM (1986) The prognostic significance of post-irradiation biopsy results in patients with prostatic cancer. J Urol 135: 510–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Shipley WU, Rose MA, Perrone TL, Mannix CM, Heney NM, Prout GR Jr (1985) Full-dose irradiation for patients with invasive bladder carcinoma: clinical and histological factors prognostic of improved survival. J Urol 134: 679–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Shipley WU, Coombs LJ, Prout GR Jr (1986) Preoperative irradiation and radical cystectomy for invasive cancer — patterns of failure and prognostic factors associated with patient survival and disease progression. J Urol 135: 222A.Google Scholar
  74. Shipley WU, Prout GR Jr, Einstein AB et al. (1987a) Treatment of invasive bladder cancer by cisplatin and radiation in patients unsuited for surgery. JAMA 258: 931–935PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shipley WU, Prout GR Jr, Kaufman SD, Perrone TL (1987b) Invasive bladder carcinoma: the importance of initial transurethral surgery and other significant prognostic factors for improved survival with full-dose irradiation. Cancer 60: 514–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Shipley WU, Kitagawa P, Jones W, et al. (1988a) Guidelines in 1987 for multi-center radiation therapy protocols for clinical research on bladder cancer. In Niijima T, Denis L, Koontz, W (eds) Guidelines for clinical research on bladder cancer. A. R. Liss, Inc, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  77. Shipley WU, Prout GR Jr, Coachman NM et al. (1988b) The Massachusetts General Hospital experience in patients irradiated for localized prostatic carcinoma: presented at NIH Consensus Development Conference on the Management of Clinically Localised Prostatic Cancer, Bethesda, Maryland, June 15–17, 1987. NCI Monographs 7: 67–74Google Scholar
  78. Solway MS, Einstein AB, Corder MP et al. (1983) A comparison of cisplatin and the combination of cisplatin and cyclophosphamide in advanced urothelial cancer: a National Bladder Cancer Group study. Cancer 52: 767–771CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Sternberg CN, Yagoda A, Scher HI et al. (1988) M-VAC (methotrexate, vinblastine, adriamycin, and cisplatin) for’advanced transitional cell carcinoma of the urothelium. J Urol 139: 461–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Sundaresan N, Galicich JH, Baines MS et al. (1984) Vertebral body resection in the treatment of cancer involving the spine. Cancer 53: 1393–1396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Thayer WR, Hilaris B, Herr HW et al. (1987) Interstitial irradiation in prostatic cancer: report of 10 year results. Abstract, American Urological Association Meeting, May 1987. J Urol 37: 200AGoogle Scholar
  82. Thomas GM, Rider WD, Dembo M, Cummings BJ, Gospodarowicz M, Hawkins NV, Herman JG, Keen CW (1982) Seminoma of the testis: results of treatment and patterns of failure after radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol 8: 165–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Timmer PR, Hartlief HA, Hoojikaas JA (1985) Bladder cancer: pattern of recurrence in 142 patients. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 899–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tyrrell CJ, Peckham MJ (1976) The response of lymph node metastases of testicular teratoma to radiation therapy. Br J Urol 48: 363–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. van der Werf-Messing B (1973) Carcinoma of the kidney. Cancer 32: 1056–1062PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. van der Werf-Messing B (1982) Carcinoma of the urinary bladder T3 NX MO treated by preoperative radiation followed by simple cystectomy. Int J Radiat Oncol Phys 8: 1849–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. van der Werf-Messing B, Menon RS, Hop WL (1983a) Cancer of the urinary bladder T2, T3 (NXMO) treated by interstitial radium implant: second report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 7: 481–485Google Scholar
  88. van der Werf-Messing B, Menon RS, Hop WL (1983b) Carcinoma of the urinary bladder T3 NXMO treated by combination radium implant and external beam radiation: second report. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 9: 177–180Google Scholar
  89. van der Werf-Messing B, Menon RS, Hop WCJ (1988) Carcinoma of the urinary bladder category T2, T3, Nx, MO, treated by interstitial radium implant. In Smith PH, Pavone-Macaluso MM (eds) The treatment of advanced prostate and bladder cancer. A. R. Liss, Inc, New York, 511–524Google Scholar
  90. van der Werf-Messing B, Sourek-Zikova V, Blonk DI (1976) Localized advanced carcinoma of the prostate. Radiation therapy vs. hormonal therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1: 1043–1048Google Scholar
  91. Willan BD, McGowan DG (1985) Seminoma of the testis: a 22-year experience with radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 11: 1769–1775PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Yagoda A, Watson RC, Gonzales JC, Grabstald H, Whitmore WF Jr (1976) Cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum II in advanced bladder cancer. Cancer Treat Rep 60: 917–923PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Zagars GK, Babaian RJ (1987a) Stage I testicular seminoma: rationale for postorchiectomy radiation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: 155–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Zagars GK, Babaian RJ (1987b) The role of radiation therapy in stage II testicular seminoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 13: 163–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Zagars GK, Von Eschenback AC, Johnson DE (1987) The management of stage C adenocarcinoma of the prostate with external beam radiation therapy. Abstract, American Urologic Association Meeting, May 1987. J Urol 37: 199AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. U. Shipley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations