Advertisement

Contrast Media and the Central Nervous System

  • Peter Dawson
Part of the Clinical Medicine and the Nervous System book series (CLIN.MED.NERV.)

Abstract

The soft tissues of the body, including those of the central nervous system, are poorly demonstrated on plain X-ray films and the need for agents which would enhance these images was perceived in the very earliest days of radiology (Wallingford 1953; Bull 1961). The story of the development of such agents in fact constitutes a fascinating sub-plot in the history of the subject. The rapid post-war development of neurosurgical techniques was a powerful impetus for further improvements in the potential of neuroradiological imaging and had a significant influence on the development of safer contrast agents (Bull 1961).

Keywords

Contrast Agent Contrast Medium Cerebral Angiography Transient Global Amnesia Water Soluble Contrast Medium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abbott KH, Gray JR, Goodall RJ (1952) Clinical complications of cerebral angiography. J Neurosurg 9:258–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahlgren P (1972) Dimer-X. A new contrast medium for lumbar myelography without spinal anaesthesia. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 13:753–761Google Scholar
  3. Ahlgren P (1980) Early and late side-effects of water soluble contrast media for myelography and cisternography: a short review. Invest Radiol 15:S264–S266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Albertson K, Doppman JL (1974) Meglumine diatrizoate v iothalamate: comparison of seizure-inducing potential, Br J Radiol 47:265–267PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Angiari P, Crisi G, Merli GA (1974) Aphasia and right hemi-plegia after cervical myelography with Amipaque. A case report. Neuroradiology 26:61–63Google Scholar
  6. Ansell G, Tweedie MCK, West CR, Evans P, Couch L (1986) The current status of reactions to intravenous contrast media. Invest Radiol 15:S32–S39Google Scholar
  7. Arnell S, Lidstrom F (1931) Myelography with Skiodan (Abrodil). Acta Radiol 12:287–291Google Scholar
  8. Baker RA, Hillman BJ, McLennan JE, Strand RD, Kaufman SM (1978) Sequelae of metrizamide myelography in 200 examinations. AJR 130:499–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertoni JM, Alexander GM, Schwartzman RJ (1980) Metrizamide competitively inhibits hexokinase. In: Duvoisin RC (ed) Transactions of the American Neurological Association, vol 105. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp 218–220Google Scholar
  10. Bertoni JM, Schwartzman RJ, Van Horn G, Partin J (1981) Asterixis and encephalopathy following metrizamide myelography: Investigation into possible mechanisms and review of the literature. Ann Neurol 9:366–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boijsen E, Lindholmer E (1971) Serious complications from myelography with meglumine iothalamate. An account of 324 lumbar myelographies together with a description of 2 cases of severe leg cramp. Nord Med 85:520–522Google Scholar
  12. Boyd JT, Langlands AO, MacCabe JJ (1968) Long-term hazards of Thorotrast. Br Med J ii:517–521Google Scholar
  13. Brendler SJ, Hayes GJ (1959) Hypaque in cerebral angiography: report of complications in 617 angiograms. J Neurosurg 16:454–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Broman T, Olsson O (1984) The tolerance of cerebral blood vessels to a contrast medium of the diodrast group. Acta Radiol 30:326–342Google Scholar
  15. Bryan RN, Hershkowitz N (1982) Intracellular effects of radiographic contrast agents on the rat-hippocampus (abstr). AJNR 3:93Google Scholar
  16. Bull JWD (1961) History of neuroradiology. The presidential address delivered at the British Institute of Radiology, 20 Oct 1960. BrJ Radiol 34:69–84Google Scholar
  17. Caille JM, Guibert-Tranier F, Howa, JM, Billerey J, Calabet A, Piton J (1980) Cerebral penetration following metrizamide myelography, J Neuroradiol 7:3–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Camp JD (1950) Contrast myelography: past and present. Radiology 54:477–505Google Scholar
  19. Cornell SH (1969) Spasticity of the lower extremities following abdominal aortography. Radiology 93:377–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Cristi G, Scialfa G, Di Pierro G, Tassoni A (1974) Visual loss: a rare complication following oil myelography. Case report and review of the literature. Neuroradiology 7:287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Crocker EF, Zimmerman RA, Phelps ME, Kuhl DE (1976) The effects of steroids on the extravascular distribution of radiographic contrast material and technetium pertechnetate in brain tumours as determined by computer tomography. Radiology 119:471–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cronquist S (1983) Iohexol in cerebral angiography. Survey and present state. Acta Radiol [Suppl] (Stockh) 36:135–139Google Scholar
  23. Dahlstrom K (1984) Summary of US and European intra-vascular experience with iohexol. Presented at “A worldwide clinical assessment of a new contrast medium, iohexol”, Boca Raton, Fla, May 1984, ppSl17–S120Google Scholar
  24. Dandy WE (1919) Roentgenography of the brain after the injection of air into the spinal canal. Ann Surg 70:397–403PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dandy WE (1925) The diagnosis and localisation of spinal cord tumours. Ann Surg 81:223–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dawson P (1985) Chemotoxicity of contrast media and clinical adverse effects; a review. Invest Radiol 20:S84–S91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dawson P (1987) Iodinated intravascular contrast agents; a review. J Intervent Radiol 2:51–58Google Scholar
  28. Dawson P, Edgerton D (1983) Contrast media and enzyme inhibition-1 cholinesterase. Br J-Radiol 56:653–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dawson P, Howell M (1986) The non-ionic dimers; a new class of contrast agents. Br J Radiol 59:987–991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dawson P, Harrison MJG, Weisblat E (1983a) Effect of contrast media on red cell filtrability and morphology. Br J Radiol 56:707–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dawson P, Grainger RG, Pitfield J (1983b) The new low osmolar contrast media-a simple guide. Clin Radiol 34:221–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Dawson P, Penhaligon M, Smith E, Saunders J (1987) Iodinated contrast agents as radio-sensitisers. Br J Radiol 60:201–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Dean PB, Kormano M (1977) Intra-arterial bolus of 125I labelled meglumine diatrizoate. Early extravascular distribution. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stokh) 18:425–432Google Scholar
  34. Djindjian R (1969) Arteriography of the spinal cord. Am J Roentgenol Rad Ther Nucl Med 197:461–478Google Scholar
  35. Dormer FR (1969) Effects of diuretics on cerebrospinal fluid formation and potassium movement. Exp Neurol 24:54–64Google Scholar
  36. Drayer B, Ross M, Allen S, France R, Bates M (1984) lotrol myelography: initial clinical trial. Invest Radiol 19:S141Google Scholar
  37. Dullerud R, Morland TJ (1976) Adhesive arachnoiditis after lumbar radiculography with Dimer-X and Depo-Medrol. Radiology 119:153–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Ekholm SE (1985) Iohexol versus metrizamide in studies of glucose metabolism. A survey. Invest Radiol 20:S 18–21Google Scholar
  39. Ekholm SE, Reece K, Coleman, DK Jr, Fischer H (1983) Metrizamide-a potential in vivo inhibitor of glucose metabolism. Radiology 147:119–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Eldevik OP, Haughton VM (1978) The effect of hydration of the acute and chronic complications of aqueous myelography. An experimental study. Radiology 129:713–714PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Eldevik OP, Nakken KO, Haughton VM (1978a). The effect of dehydration on the side effects of metrizamide myelography. Radiology 129:715–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Eldevik OP, Haughton VM, Ho KC, Williams AL, Unger GF, Larson SJ (1978b) Ineffectiveness of prophylactic intrathecal methylprednisolone in myelography with aqueous media. Radiology 129:99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Epsen F (1966) Spinal cord lesion as a complication of abdominal aortography. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 4:47–61Google Scholar
  44. Erickson TC, Van Baaren HH (1953) Late meningeal reaction to ethyl iodophenyl undecylate used in myelography: report of a case that terminated fatally. JAMA 153:636–639Google Scholar
  45. Feigelson HH, Ravin HA (1965) Transverse myelitis following selective bronchial arteriography. Radiology 85:663–665PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Feny DW, Gooding R, Standefer JC, Weise GM (1973) Effect of Pantopaque myelography on cerebrospinal fluid reactions. J Neurosurg 38:167–171Google Scholar
  47. Fischer HW, Eckstein JW, Perret G (1962) Comparison of cardiovascular effect of contrast media in cerebral angiography in man. J Neurosurg 19: 943–946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. France RD, McCracken J (1984) Delirium following metrizamide myelography. Psychosomatics 25:338–339PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. French L, Blake PS (1950) Complications following the use of neo-iopax in cerebral angiography. Am J Roentgenol Rad Ther Nucl Med 64: 816–818Google Scholar
  50. Gabrielson TO, Geparski SS, Knake JE, Latack JT, Yang PJ, Hoff JT (1984) Iohexol versus metrizamide for lumbar myelography: double-blind trial. AJR 142:1047–1049Google Scholar
  51. Galle G, Huk W, Arnold K (1984) Psychopathometric demonstration and quantification of mental disturbances following myelography with metrizamide and iopamidol. Neuroradiology 26:229–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gardeur D, Lautrou J, Millard JC, Berger N, Matzger J (1980) Pharmacokinetics of contrast media: experimental results in dogs and man with CT implications. J Comput Assist Tomogr 4:178–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gelmers HJ (1979) Adverse side effect of metrizamide in myelography. Neuroradiology 18: 118–123Google Scholar
  54. Golman K (1979) The blood-brain barrier effects of non-ionic contrast media with and without addition of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Invest Radiol 14:305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Gonsette R (1971) An experimental and clinical assessment of water soluble contrast medium in neuroradiology. A new medium: Dimer-X. Clin Radiol 22:44–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gonsette R (1973) Biologic tolerance of the central nervous system to metrizamide. Acta Radiol [Suppl] (Stockh) 335:25–44Google Scholar
  57. Gonsette R (1978) Animal experiments and clinical experiences in cerebral angiography with a new contrast agent (ioxaglic acid) with a low hyperosmolality. Ann Radiol 21:271–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Gonsette R, Brucher JM (1980) Neurotoxicity of novel water soluble contrast media for intra-thecal application. Invest Radiol 15:S254–S259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Grainger RG (1980) Osmolality of intravascular radiological contrast media. Br J Radiol 53:739–746PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Grainger RG (1982) Intravascular contrast media-the past, the present and the future. Br J Radiol 55:1–18PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Greenberg MK, Vance SC (1980) Focal seizure disorder complication of iodophendylate myelography (letter). Lancet i:312–313Google Scholar
  62. Gulati AN, Guadagnoil DA, Quigley JM (1981) Relationship of side effects to patient position during and after metrizamide lumber myelography. Radiology 141:113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hammer B, Lackner W (1980) Iopamidol, a new non-ionic hydrosoluble contrast medium for neuroradiology. Neuroradiology 19:119–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Harnish PP, Di Stefano V (1984) Decreased CSF production by Intravenous sodium diatrizoate. Invest Radiol 19:318–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Harnish PP, Di Stefano V (1985) Pharmacological action of radiographic contrast media reduced CSF production in the dog. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 232:88–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Harnish PP, Northington RK, Di Stefano V, Banarjee SP (1986) Mechanisms of decreased cerebrospinal fluid production by radiographic contrast media: role of adenylate cyclase activation. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 236:464–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Harnish PP, Northington FK, Samuel KA (1988) Iohexol Inhibits adenylate cyclase. Invest Radiol 23:139–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Harvey JP, Freiberger RF, Werner G (1961) Clinical and experimental observations with methiodal, an absorbable myelo-graphic contrast agent. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2:610–614PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Haughton VM (1976) Changes of arachnoiditis after metrizamide myelography: experimental work in monkeys. Myelography and the water soluble contrast medium. University of Wisconsin, Madison, 26 MarchGoogle Scholar
  70. Haughton VM (1985) Intrathecal toxicity of iohexol versus metrizamide. Survey and current state. Invest Radiol 20:S14–S17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Haughton VM, Ho KC (1980) Arachnoiditis from myelography with iopamidol, metrizamide and iocarmate compared in the animal model. Invest Radiol 15:S267–S269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Haughton VM, Ho KC, Larson S et al. (1977) Arachnoiditis following intrathecal injection of blood and aqueous contrast media. Acta Radiol [Suppl] (Stockh) 355:373–378Google Scholar
  73. Haughton VM, Ho KC, Larsen SJ, Unger GF, Correa-Pax F (1978) Comparison of arachnoiditis produced by meglumine iocarmate and metrizamide myelography in an animal model. AJR 131:129–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Henson RA, Parsons M (1967) Ischaemic lesions of the spinal cord: an illustrated review. QJ Med 36:205–222Google Scholar
  75. Hershkowitz N, Bryan RN (1982) Neurotoxic effects of water-soluble contrast agents on rat hippocampus extracellular recordings. Invest Radiol 17:271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Higgins CB, Schmidt WS (1979) Identification and evaluation of the contribution of the chemoreflex in the hemodynamic response to intracarotid administration of contrast materials in the conscious dog: comparison with the response to nicotine. Invest Radiol 14:438–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Hilal SK (1966a) Haemodynamic responses in the cerebral vessels to angiographic contrast media. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 5:211–231Google Scholar
  78. Hilal SK (1966b) Haemodynamic’changes associated with intra-arterial injection of contrast media. Radiology 86:615–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Hilal SK (1974) Cerebral hemodynamics assessed by angiography. In: Newton TH, Potts DG (eds) Radiology of the skull and brain. CV Mosby, St Louis, pp 1067–1085Google Scholar
  80. Hindmarch T, Grepe A, Widen L (1975) Metrizamide-phen-othiazine interaction: report of a case with seizures following myelography. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 16:129–134Google Scholar
  81. Hoppe JO (1959) Some pharmalogical aspects of radiopaque compounds. Ann NY Acad Sci 78:727–739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Howell MJ, Dawson P (1985) Contrast media and enzyme inhibition. II Mechanisms. Br J Radiol 58:845–848PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Howieson J (1974) Complications of cerebral angiography. In: Newton TH, Potts DG (eds) Radiology of skull and brain: Angiography, CV Mosby, St Louis, Chap. 53Google Scholar
  84. Hughes R (1953) Chronic changes in the central nervous system following Thorotrast ventriculography. Proc R Soc Med 46:191–195PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Ingvar DH (1957) EEG during cerebral angiography. Acta Radiol 47:181–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Irastam L, Sellden U (1976) Adverse effects of lumbar myelography with Amipaque and Dimer-S. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 17:145–159Google Scholar
  87. Irastam L, Sundstrom R, Sigstedt B (1974) Lumbar myelography and adhesive arachnoiditis. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 15:356–368Google Scholar
  88. Jacobaeus HG (1921) On insufflation of air into the spinal canal for diagnostic purposes in cases of tumors in the.spinal canal. Acta Med Scand 55:555–564Google Scholar
  89. Jaeger R (1950) Irritating effect of iodized vegetable oils on the brain and spinal cord when divided into small particles. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 64:715–719Google Scholar
  90. Jeppson PG, Olin T (1970) Neurotoxicity of Roentgen contrast media. Study in the blood-brain barrier in the rabbit following selective injection of contrast media into the internal cerebral artery. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 10:17–34Google Scholar
  91. Jones DF (1980) Postoperative convulsions due to iophendylate (Myodil). Report of a case and review of the causes of postoperative convulsions. Anaesthesia 35:50–56PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Kaada B (1973) Transient EEG abnormalities following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Acta Radiol [Suppl] 33:380–386Google Scholar
  93. Kachel R, Ritter H, Schiffmann R, Schumann E (1980) Complication following cerebral angiography: Report on 4,181 cerebral angiographies. Zentralbl Chir 105:504–512PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kendall BE (1964) Cerebral angiography using Conray. Br J Radiol 37:581–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kendall BE, Pullicino P (1980) Intravascular contrast injection in ischamic lesions. Neuroradiology 19:241–243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kendall B, Schneidau A, Stevens J, Harrison M (1983) Clinical trial of Iohexol for lumbar myelography. Br J Radiol 56:539–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Kido DK, Gordon-Potts D, Bryan NR et al. (1985) Iohexol cerebral angiography. Multicentre clinical trial. Invest Radiol 30:S55–S57Google Scholar
  98. Koppejan EH, Bejeer N, Bosch DA, Vencken LM (1981) Organic psychosyndrome correlated with high density of grey matter on CT following metrizamide cervical myelography. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 83:63–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Kun M, Alwaskiak J, Gronska J (1978) Morphological changes in the CNS after Dimer-X ventriculography. Neuroradiology 15:99–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Kwentus JA, Silverman JJ, Sprague M (1984) Manic syndrome after metrizamide myelography. Am J Psychiatry 14: 700–702Google Scholar
  101. Labauger R, Cailar J, Xhardex M et al. (1968) Cortical blindness after cerebral angiography; reversibility under hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Rev Neurol (Paris) 118:283–289Google Scholar
  102. Lalli AF (1980) Contrast media reactions: Data analysis and hypothesis. Radiology 134:1–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lalli AF, Greenstreet R (1981) Reactions to contrast media: testing the CNS hypothesis. Radiology 138:47–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Lamb JT (1984) A comparison of Iopamidol and Iohexol for myelography. Neuroradiology 26:157Google Scholar
  105. Lefft HH, Maclean JA Jr (1942) Visualization of the brain and spinal cord with diodothyrosine-gelatin contrast medium, including observation on the fate of this material. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 48:343–347Google Scholar
  106. Lindblom K (1947) Complications of myelography by Abrodil. Acta Radiol 28:69–73PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lindgren P (1958) Blood pressure and heart rate responses in carotid angiography with sodium actrizoat. Acta Radiol 50:160–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Lindgren P (1959) Carotid angiography with tri-iodobenzoic acid derivatives: A comparative experimental study of the effects on the systemic circulation in cats. Acta Radiol 51:353–362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Luce JC, Leith W, Burrage WC (1951) Pantopaque meningitis due to hypersensitivity. Radiology 57:878–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Lundervold A, Engeset A (1969) Electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic studies of complications in cerebral angiography. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 9:399–406Google Scholar
  111. Lynch PR, Harrington GJ, Michie C (1969) Cardiovascular reflexes associated with cerebral angiography. Invest Radiol 4:156–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Mani RL, Eisenberg RL (1978) Complication of catheter cerebral arteriography: analysis of 5,000 procedures. III. Assessment of arteries injected, contrast medium used, duration of procedure and age of patient. AJR 131:871–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Margolis G, Griffin AT, Kenan PD et al. (1959) Contrast medium injury to the spinal cord: the role of altered circulatory dynamics. J Neurosurg 16:390–406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Masdeu JC, Glista GG, Rubino FA, Martinex-Lage JM, Marani E (1983) Transient motor aphasia following metrizamide myelography. AJNR 4:200–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Mason MS, Raof J (1962) Complications of Pantopaque myelography: case report and review. J Neurosurg 19:302–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. McChesney EW, Hoppe JO (1957) Studies of the tissue distribution and execretion of sodium diatrizoate in laboratory animals. Am J Roentgenol Rad Ther 78:137–144Google Scholar
  117. McClennan BL, Becker JA (1971) Cerebrospinal fluid transfer of contrast material at urography. AJR 113:427–432Google Scholar
  118. McLennan JE (1973) Prevention of post-myelographic post-pneumoencephalographic headache by single dose intrathecal methyl-prednisolone acetate. Headache 13:39–48PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Melartin E, Tuohimaa PJ, Dabb R (1970) Neurotoxicity of iothalamate and diatrizoates. I. Significance of concentration and cation. Invest Radiol 5:13–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Moniz E (1927) L’encephalographie arterielle, son importance dans la localisation des tumeurs cerebrales. Rev Neurol 2:72–90Google Scholar
  121. Morris TW, Francis M, Fisher HW (1979) A comparison of the cardiovascular responses to carotid injections of ionic and nonionic contrast media. Invest Radiol 14:217–223PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Muetzel W, Speck U (1980) Pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of iohexol in the rat and the dog. Acta Radiol [Suppl] 362:87–92Google Scholar
  123. Muetzel W, Press W-R, Weinmann HJ (1984) Preclinical experience with iotrol. Invest Radiol 19:S140–S141Google Scholar
  124. Murphy DJ (1973) Cerebrovascular permeability after meglumine iothalamate administration. Neurology 23:926–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Neuwelt EA, Barnett PA, Bigner DD, Frenkel EP (1982) Effects of adrenal cortical steroids and osmotic blood-brain barrier opening on methotrexate delivery to gliomas in the rodent: the factor of the blood-brain barrier. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:4420–4423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Newhouse JH (1977) Fluid compartment distribution of intravenous iothalamate in the dog. Invest Radiol 12:364–367PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Nielsen H (1975) Case reports: epileptic seizures following cervical myelography, Neuroradiology 10:59–60Google Scholar
  128. Nishikawa M, Yonekawa Y (1976) Intracisternal dimer X: toxicity and prophylaxis. Neuroradiology 11: 61–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Northington JW, Biery DN, Lawrence TG (1982) Intrathecal Dextrose to prevent seizures after metrizamide myelography in dogs. Invest Radiol 17:282–283PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Occhiogrosso M, Troccoli V, Vailati G (1979) A rare complication following iodized myelography: Late blindness. Case report. Acta Neurol (Napoli) 34:76–78Google Scholar
  131. Oftedal SI (1977) Toxicity of water soluble contrast media injected suboccipitally in cats. Acta Radiol [Suppl] 335:84–92Google Scholar
  132. Oftedal SI (1982) Meningeal reactions to water soluble contrast media: a comparison of iophendylate and metrizamide in experimental animals. Radiology 143:699–702Google Scholar
  133. Oftedal SI, Kayed K (1983) Epileptogenic effects of water soluble contrast media: an experimental investigation in rabbits. Acta Radiol [Suppl] 335:45–56Google Scholar
  134. Perlman EM, Barry D (1984) Bilateral sixth nerve palsy after water soluble contrast myelography. Letter. Arch. Ophthalmol 102:986Google Scholar
  135. Peroutka SJ, Ullrich CG, Fisher RS, Suss RA, Brooks BR (1982) Transient areflexia and quadriplegia following metrizamide myelography (Letter). Ann Neurol 12:406–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Petrovitch M (1981) Radiological evaluation of the spinal cord. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  137. Raininko R (1979) Role of hypertonicity in the endothelial injury caused by angiographic contrast media. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 20:410–416Google Scholar
  138. Ramsey GH, French JD, Strain WH (1944) Iodinated organic compounds as contrast media for radiographic diagnosis. IV. Pantopaque myelography. Radiology 43:236–241Google Scholar
  139. Rapoport SI, Levitan H (1974) Neurotoxicity of X-ray contrast media. Relation to lipid solubility and blood brain barrier permeability, AJR 122:186–193Google Scholar
  140. Rapoport SI, Thompson HK, Bidinger JM (1974) Equiosmolal opening of the blood-brain barrier in the rabbit by different contrast media. Acta Radiol [Diagn] (Stockh) 15:21–32Google Scholar
  141. Reed DJ (1968) The effects of actazolamide on pentobarbitol sleep-time and cerebrospinal fluid flow of rats. Arch Int Phar-macodyn 171:206–215Google Scholar
  142. Reed DJ (1969) The effect of furosemide on cerebrospinal fluid flow in rabbits. Arch Int Pharmacodyn 178:324–330PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Reisner H, Samec P, Zeiler K (1980) On the complication rate of cerebral angiography. Neurosurg Rev 3:23–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Rolfe EB, Maguise PD (1980) The incidence of headache following various techniques of metrizamide myelography. Br J Radiol 53:840–844PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Ropper AH, Chiappa K, Young RR (1978) The effect of metrizamide on the EEG: A prospective study in 62 cases. Trans Am Neurol Assoc 103:159–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Rosenbaum AE, Baker RA (1984) Pneumomyelography. In: Shapiro R (ed) Myelography, Yearbook Medical Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  147. Rubin RC, Henderson ES, Ommaya AK, Walker MD, Rail DP (1966) The production of cerebrospinal fluid in man and its modification by actazolamide. J Neurosurg 25:430–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Sage MR, Wilcox J, Evill CA, Benness GT (1982a) Brain parenchyma penetration by intrathecal ionics and non-ionic contrast media. AJNR 3:481–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Sage MR, Wilcox, J, Evill CA, Benness GT (1982b) Comparison and evaluation of osmotic blood brain barrier disruption following intracarotid mannitol and methylglucamine iothalamate. Invest Radiol 17:276–281PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Schober R (1964) Roentgen-Kontrastmittel und Liquor-Raum. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  151. Shaw DD, Gansmo TB, Dahlstrom K (1985) Iohexol. Summary of North American and European clinical trials in adult lumbar, thoracic and cervical myelography with a new nonionic contrast medium. Invest Radiol 20:S44–S50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Shehadi WH, Toniolo G (1980a) Adverse reactions to intra-vascularly administered contrast media. AJR 124:145–152Google Scholar
  153. Shehadi WH, Toniolo G (1980b) Adverse reactions to contrast media. Radiology 137:229–302Google Scholar
  154. Sicard JA, Forestier JE (1922) Methode generale d’exploration radiologique par l’huile iodie (lipidoil). Bull Soc Med Hop Paris 46:463–469Google Scholar
  155. Skalpe IO (1976) Adhesive arachnoiditis following lumbar radic-ulography with water soluble contrast agents. Radiology 121:647–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Smith MA, Laguna JF (1980) Confusion, dysphasia, and asterixis following metrizamide myelography. Can J Neurol Sci 7:309–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Sovak M, Siefert HM, Ranganathan R (1980) Combined methods for assessment of neurotoxicity. Testing of new nonionic radiographic media. Invest Radiol 15:S248–S253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Sovak M, Ranganathan R, Speck U (1982a) Nonionic dimer: Development and initial testing of an intrathecal contrast agent. Radiology 142:115–118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Sovak M, Siefert HM, Ranganathan R (1982b) Combined methods for assessment of neurotoxicity: Testing of new nonionic radiographic media. Invest Radiol 15:6Google Scholar
  160. Stack JP, Antoun NM, Jenkins JPR, Metcalfe RA, Isherwood I (1988) Gadolinium DTPA as a contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Neuroradiology 30: 145–154PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Steinhausen TB, Dungan CE, Furst JB et al. (1944) Iodinated organic compounds as contrast media for radiographic diagnosis. III. Experimental and clinical myelography with ethyl iodophenylundecylate (Pantopaque). Radiology 43:230Google Scholar
  162. Strain WH (1971) Radiocontrast agents for neuroradiology. In: Knoefel PK (ed) Encyclopaedia of contrast media, vol 11. Pergamon Press, Oxford, p 369Google Scholar
  163. Strain WH, French JD, Jones GE (1946) Iodinated organic compounds as contrast media for diagnosis. Escape of Pantopaque from intracranial subarachnoid space of dogs. Radiology 47:47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Studdard WE, Davis DO, Young SW (1981) Cortical blindness after cerebral angiography. A case report. J Neurosurg 54:240–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Suzuki S, Kawaguchi S, Mita R, Ito K, Iwabuchi T (1976a) Ventriculography with methylglucamine iocarmate (Dimer-X). Experimental and clinical study. Neurol Surg (Tokyo) 3:849–858Google Scholar
  166. Suzuki S, Kawaguchi S, Mita R, Iwabuchi T (1976b) Ventriculography with methylglucamine iocarmate (Dimer-X). Experimental and clinical study. Acta Neurochir (Wien) 33:219–223Google Scholar
  167. Taren JA (1960) Unusual complication following Pantopaque myelography. J Neurosurg 17:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Thomas SF, Heary GW, Kaplan HS (1951) Hepatolienography: Past, present and future. Radiology 57:669–683PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Usbeck W, Assmann H (1977) value of Dimer-S myelography in the diagnosis of lumbar intravertebral disk lesions. Zentralbl Neurochir 38:165–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Waldron RL, Bridenbaugh RB, Dampsey EW (1974) Effect of angiographic contrast media at cellular level in the brain: hypertonic vs chemical action. AJR 122:469–476Google Scholar
  171. Wales LR, Nov AA (1981) Transient global amnesia: Complication of cerebral angiography. AJNR 2:275–277PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Wallingford VH (1953) The development of organic iodide compounds as X-ray contrast media. J Am Pharmacol Assoc 42:721–728Google Scholar
  173. White WB (1984) Metrizamide meningitis. South Med J 77:88–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wolf GL, Popp C (1984) NMR. A primer for medical imaging. Slack Incorporated, New JerseyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Dawson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations