We are now at a unique historical turning point. Decisions we make in respect of the new technologies will have a profound effect upon the way we relate to each other, to our work, and to nature itself. Vast computer systems, expert systems, and artificial intelligence systems should not be seen as a technological bolt from the blue. They are in fact part of the historical continuum which is discernible in Europe certainly over the last five hundred years. Scientific and technological change, viewed historically, does seem to embody three predominant historical tendencies. Firstly, there is a change in the organic composition of capital. We tend to render processes capital-intensive rather than labour-intensive. Secondly, it constitutes a shift from the analogical to the digital. The manner in which we perceive our world, analyse it and relate to it is dramatically changed. Thirdly, it is a process in which human beings are rendered passive and the machines become more active. We recall “the more you give to the machines the less there is left of yourself”. It is against this historical background that there is an urgent need to view alternative systems, in particular those which may be regarded as human-centred. This paper will describe such human-centred systems.


Expert System Tacit Knowledge Fuzzy Reasoning Intellectual Work Artificial Intelligence System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References and Further Reading

  1. Archer L B (1973) Computer Design Theory and Handling the Qualitative. Royal College of Art, LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. Braverman H (1974) Labour and monopoly capital. The degradation of work in the twentieth century. Monthly Review Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Bodington S (1978) Science and social action. Alison and Busby, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Cooley MIE (1987) Architect or bee: the human price of technology. Hogarth Press, Chatto & Windus Ltd (edition ), LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Dreyfus HL (1979) The Limits of Artificial Intelligence. Harper & Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Dreyfus HL, Dreyfus SE (1986), Mind over machine: the power of human intuition and expertise in the era of computers. New York Free Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Kemp M (1981) Marvellous works of nature and man. Dent & Sons, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. Licklider JCR (1960) Man — computer symbiosis. IRE Trans Electron 2: 4–11Google Scholar
  9. Needham J (1976) History and human values In: Rose H, Rose S (eds.) The radicalisation of science. Macmillan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Rosenbrock H (1979) The Redirection of Technology. Proceedings, IFAC Conference. Silver RS (1975) The misuse of science. New Scientist 166: 956Google Scholar
  11. Weizenbaum J (1976) Computer power and human reasoning. WH Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  12. Weizenbaum J (1977) The Future of Control. Proceedings 6th IFAC Congress, Boston 1976. Automatic 13: 389–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Wiener N (1960) Science 131: 1355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Cooley

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations