Distributed representations and the bilingual lexicon: One store or two?

  • Michael S. C. Thomas
Conference paper
Part of the Perspectives in Neural Computing book series (PERSPECT.NEURAL)

Abstract

Several researchers have put forward models of bilingual lexical representation based on extensions to traditional monolingual models, such as those using serial search and interactive activation paradigms. In this paper we examine the implications of employing a distributed notion of lexical representation in a model of the bilingual lexicon. A model is presented that stores knowledge about the words in two languages in a single connectionist network. The model simulates both empirical evidence taken to indicate independent lexical representations, as well as evidence of between language similarity effects. The latter type of evidence is problematic for models which employ strictly independent lexical representations for each language. The implications of evidence from bilingual language development and from second language acquisition are discussed.

Keywords

Cough 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lambert WE. Psychological studies of the interdependencies of the bilingual’s two languages. In Puhvel J (Ed.), Substance and structure of language. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kirsner K, Lalor E, and Hird K. The bilingual lexicon: Exercise, meaning, and morphology. In Schreuder R and Weltens B (Eds.) The Bilingual Lexicon. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. Pp. 215–248.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chen H-C and Ng ML. Semantic facilitation and translation priming effects in Chinese-English bilinguals. Memory and Cognition 1989, 17, 454–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kirsner K, Smith MC, Lockhart RLS, King ML, and Jain M. The bilingual lexicon: Language-specific units in an integrated network. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour 1984, 23, 519–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gerard LD and Scarborough DL. Language-specific lexical access of homographs by bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1989, 15, 305–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thomas MSC. Connectionist networks and knowledge representation: The case of bilingual lexical representation. Unpublished D.Phil. Thesis. Oxford University, 1997Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith MC. On the recruitment of semantic information for word fragment completion: Evidence from bilingual priming. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour 1991, 17, 234–244.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klein D and Doctor EA. Homography and polysemy as factors in bilingual word recognition. South African Journal of Psychology 1992, 22 (1), 10–16.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cristoffanini P, Kirsner K, and Milech D. Bilingual lexical representation: The status of Spanish-English cognates. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 1986, 38A, 367–393.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beauvillain C. Orthographic and lexical constraints in bilingual word recognition. In R. J. Harris (Ed.) Cognitive Processing in Bilinguals. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1992.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Grainger J. Visual word recognition in bilinguals. In Schreuder R and Weltens B (Eds.) The Bilingual Lexicon. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 1993. Pp. 11–25.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    French RM and Ohnesorge C. Using orthographic neighbourhoods of interlexical nonwords to support an interactive-activation model of bilingual memory. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996. Pp. 318–323Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grainger J and Dijkstra T. On the representation and use of language information in bilinguals. In Harris RJ (Ed.) Cognitive Processing in Bilinguals. Elsevier Science Publishers, 1992. Pp. 207–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Plaut DC. Semantic and Associative Priming in a Distributed Attractor Network. In Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1995. Pp. 37–42.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Plaut DC. Structure and function in the lexical system: Insights from distributed models of word reading and lexical decision. Language and Cognitive Processes. In press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bullinaria JA. Modelling reaction times. In Smith LS and Hancock PJB (Eds.) Neural Computation and Psychology, Proceedings of the 3rd Neural Computation and Psychology Workshop. Springer, 1995. Pp. 34–48.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Thomas MSC and Plunkett K. Representing the bilingual’s two lexicons. In Proceedings of the 17th Annual Cognitive Science Society Conference. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995. Pp. 760–765.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Becker S, Behrmann M, and Moscovitch M. Word priming in attractor networks. In Proceedings of the 15th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Erlbaum, 1993. Pp. 231–236.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    McClelland JL and Rumelhart DE. A Distributed Model of Human Learning and Memory. In McClelland JL, Rumelhart DE, and the PDP Research Group, Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. Volume 2: Psychological and Biological Models. MIT Press, 1986.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Roydes RL and Osgood CE. Effect of grammatical form-class set upon perception of grammatically ambiguous English words. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 1972, 1, 165–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Masson MEJ and Freedman L. Fluent identification of repeated words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1990, 16, 355–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Monsell S. Control of mental processes. In Bruce V (Ed.) Unsolved mysteries of the mind: Tutorial essays in cognition. Erlbaum, 1996. Pp. 93–148.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ellis R. The study of second language acquisition. Oxford University Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Genesee F. Early bilingual development: one language or two? Journal of Child Language 1989, 6, 161–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lanza E. Can a bilingual two-year-old code-switch? Journal of Child Language 1992, 19, 633–658.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Seidenberg MS and McClelland JL. A distributed, developmental model of word recognition and naming. Psychological Review 1989, 96, 523–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ratcliff R. Connectionist models of recognition memory: Constraints imposed by learning and forgetting functions. Psychological Review 1990, 97, 285–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    McCloskey M and Cohen NJ. Catastrophic interference in connectionist networks: The sequential learning problem. In GH Bower (Ed.) The psychology of learning and motivation, vol. 24, 1989. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Magiste E. Stroop tasks and dichotic translation: The development of interference patterns in bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 1984, 10 (2), 304–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Potter MC, So K-F, von Eckhardt B, and Feldman LB. Lexical and conceptual representation in beginning and more proficient bilinguals. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour 1984, 23, 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kroll JF and Curley J. Lexical memory in novice bilinguals: The role of concepts in retrieving second language words. In M. Gruneberg, P. Morris, and R. Sykes (Eds.), Practical Aspects of Memory, Vol. 2. 1988. London: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    McClelland JL, McNaughton BL, and O’Reilly RG. Why there are complementary learning systems in the hippocampus and neocortex: Insights from the successes and failures of connectionist models of learning and memory. Psychological Review 1995, 102, 419–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael S. C. Thomas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyKing Alfred’s CollegeWinchesterUK

Personalised recommendations