Clinical Presentation and Classification of Chronic Venous Disease

  • Robert L. Kistner
  • Bo Eklof


Effective communication about diseases of the blood vessels requires a classification that categorizes patients into well-defined groups which can be reliably reproduced. The classification needs to be capable of distinguishing two dissimilar conditions which have the same external appearance by elements in the classification other than the appearance. This is particularly important in chronic venous disease where similar external features, such as discoloration, skin changes, and even ulceration are found in individuals with widely divergent venous pathology. Consider the extremities pictured in Fig. 5.1 and Fig. 5.2. The limb in Fig. 5.1 bears the appearance of the classical “post-phlebitic” leg so often discussed in the literature.


Varicose Vein Venous Disease Disability Score Great Saphenous Vein Superficial Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Venous Forum (1996) Classification and grading of chronic venous disease in the lower limb. A consensus statement. Vasc Surg 30:5–11Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Prepared by an Ad Hoc Committee at the American Venous Forum 6th Annual Meeting in February 1994 (1995) Classification and grading of chronic venous disease in the lower limbs: A consensus statement. Phlebology 10:42–45Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Widmer LK (1978) Classification of venous disorders. Peripheral Venous Disorders Basel III. Hans Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Porter JM, Rutherford RB, Claggett GP et al. (1988) NAISCVS/SVS Ad Hoc Committee on Reporting Standards in Venous Disease. R. Rutherford, Chairman Ad Hoc Committee. Reporting standards in venous disease. J Vasc Surg 8:172–181Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sytchev GG (1985) Classification of chronic venous disorders of lower extremities and pelvis. International Angiology 4:203–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Enrici EA, Caldevilla HS (1992) Classificacion de la Insuficiencia venosa cronica. In: Enrici EA, Caldevilla HS (eds) Insuficiencia Venosa Cronica de los Miembros Inferiores. Editorial Celcius, pp 107–114Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kistner RL et al. (1996) Diagnosis of chronic venous disease of the lower extremities: The “CEAP” classification. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 71:338–345PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kistner RL (1996) Definitive diagnosis and definitive treatment in chronic venous disease: A concept whose time has come. J Vasc Surg 24:703–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert L. Kistner
  • Bo Eklof

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations