• James Cressee Elphinstone Underwood


The history of diagnostic cytology has been reviewed by Bamforth and Osborn (1958) and Spriggs (1977) and is summarised in Chap. 1. Because cytology made fewer demands on technology, it was established earlier than solid tissue biopsies as a diagnostic method. Pioneered by Bennett and his contemporaries in the mid-19th Century, cytology then faded into the background in the closing decades of the Century as solid tissue biopsies and tissue processing techniques were developed; interest in cytology abated in the face of the apparently greater diagnostic yield and precision of the biopsy. The relative neglect of cytology was reversed dramatically by Papanicolaou’s seminal observations in the 1920s on cells exfoliated from carcinoma of the cervix; this marked the renaissance of diagnostic cytology which continues to the present day.


Mesothelial Cell Aspiration Biopsy Fibrin Clot Cervical Cytology Cytological Preparation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Cressee Elphinstone Underwood
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Sheffield Medical SchoolSheffieldEngland
  2. 2.Royal Hallamshire HospitalSheffieldEngland

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