B Cell Lymphomas

  • Ian J. Forbes
  • Anthony S-Y. Leong


The classification of malignant lymphoma has always been a controversial subject, well-reflected in Rupert Willis’ statement, “nowhere in pathology has a chaos of names so clouded clear concepts as in the subject of lymphoid tumours” (Willis 1948). Despite the fact that non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma is at least twice as common as Hodgkin’s disease, it is interesting that this larger group of lymphoid neoplasms has not been given a name of its own but has come to be identified as so-called NOT or non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Terms like “reticulosis” and “reticulosarcoma” reflected prevailing concepts of the times and it was only in 1956 that the modern era of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) classifications began, with the publication of Rappaport’s classification (Rappaport et al. 1956). The Rappaport classification, based purely on morphological criteria, found favour among pathologists and clinicians alike for its relative simplicity and ease of application. General usage soon established the clinical relevance of this morphological classification. However, in the past two decades, developments in cellular immunology have led to radical changes in our concepts of the function and morphology of the lymphoid system. The accumulating information on the biology of lymphocytes resulted in objections to the validity of Rappaport’s terminologies and the concepts inherent in his classification. Within a short period some five major classifications for NHL were proposed. While three of these were based purely on morphological grounds (Bennett et al. 1974; Dorfman, 1974; Mathe et al. 1976), the classifications of Lukes and Collins (1974) and of Lennert (Gerard-Merchant et al. 1974; Lennert et al. 1975) were based on a functional or immunological approach.


Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cell Lymphoma Follicular Lymphoma Malignant Lymphoma Extramedullary Plasmacytoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alsenberg AC, Bloch KJ, Long JC (1973) Cell-surface immunoglobulins in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and allied disorders. Am J Med 55: 184–189Google Scholar
  2. Aisenberg AC, Wilkes BM, Harris NL (1983) Monoclonal antibody studies in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Blood 61: 469–475PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Allegranza A, Mariani C, Giardini R, Brambilla MC, Boeri R (1984) Primary malignant lymphomas of the central nervous system: a histological and immunohistological study of 12 cases. Histopathology 8: 781–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Anscombe AM, Wright DH (1985) Primary malignant lymphoma of the thyroid — a tumor of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue: review of 76 cases. Histopathology 9: 81–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Astarita RW, Minckler D, Taylor CR et al. (1980) Orbital and adnexal lymphomas. A multiparameter approach. Am J Clin Pathol 73: 615–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Azar HA, Espinoza CG, Richman AV, Saba SR, Wang T (1982) “Undifferentiated” large cell malignancies. An ultrastructural and immunocytochemical study. Hum Pathol 13: 323–333Google Scholar
  7. Azzopardi JG, Evans DJ (1971) Malignant lymphoma of parotid associated with Mikulicz disease (benign lymphoepithelial lesion). J Clin Pathol 24: 744–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bataille R, Sany J (1981) Solitary myeloma: clinical and prognostic features of a review of 114 cases. Cancer 48: 845–851PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bennett MH (1975) Sclerosis in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomata. Br J Cancer 31 (Suppl II): 44–52Google Scholar
  10. Bennett MH, Farrer-Brown G, Henry K et al. (1974) Classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Lancet II: 405–406Google Scholar
  11. Berard CW, O’Connor GT, Thomas LB, Torloni H (1969) Histopathological definition of Burkitt’s tumor. Bull WHO 40: 601–607Google Scholar
  12. Bienenstock J, Johnston N, Perey DYE (1973a) Bronchial lymphoid tissue. I. Morphologic characteristics. Lab Invest 28: 686–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bienenstock J, Johnston N, Perey DYE (1973b) Bronchial lymphoid tissue. II. Functional characteristics. Lab Invest 28: 693–698PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Boston HC, Dahlin DC, Ivins JC, Cupps RE (1974) Malignant lymphoma (so-called reticulum cell sarcoma) of bone. Cancer 34: 1131–1137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Braylan RC, Jaffe ES, Berard CW (1975) Malignant lymphomas. Current classification and new observations. In: Sommers SC (ed) A Pathology Annual Monograph. Appleton Century Crofts, New York, pp 213–270Google Scholar
  16. Braylan RC, Jaffe ES, Burbach JW, Frank MM, Johnson RE, Berard CW (1976) Similarities of surface characteristics of neoplastic well-differentiated lymphocytes from solid tissues and from peripheral blood. Cancer Res 36: 1619–1625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brouet JC, Preud’homme JL, Seligmann M, Bernard J (1973) Blast cells with monoclonal surface immunoglobulin in two cases of acute blast crisis supervening on chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Br Med J 4: 23–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brouet J-C, Preud’homme JL, Flandrin G, Chelloul N, Seligmann M (1977) Membrane markers in “histiocytic” lymphomas (reticulum cell sarcomas). J Natl Cancer Inst 56: 631–633Google Scholar
  19. Burg G, Braun-Falco O (1983) Cutaneous lymphomas, pseudolymphomas, and related disorders. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Burg G, Kerl H, Schmoeckel C (1984) Differentiation between malignant B-cell lymphomas and pseudolymphomas of the skin. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 10: 271–275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burke JS, Butler J J, Fuller LM (1977) Malignant lymphomas of the thyroid A clinical pathologic study of 35 patients including ultrastructural observations. Cancer 39: 1587–1602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burns BF, Warnke RA, Doggett RS et al. (1983) Expression of a T-cell antigen (Leu-1) by B-cell lymphomas. Am J Pathol 113: 165–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Callihan TR, Hobert JM Jr, Berard CW (1983) Neoplasms of terminal B-cell differentiation: the morphologic basis of functional diversity. In: Sommers SC, Rosen PP (eds) Malignant lymphoma. A Pathology Annual Monograph. Appleton Century Crofts, Norwalk, Connecticut, pp 169–268Google Scholar
  24. Cawley JC, Hayhoe FGJ (1973) Ultrastructure of hemic cells: a cytological atlas of normal and leukemic blood and bone marrow. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  25. Chorlton I, Norris HJ, King FM (1974) Malignant reticuloendothelial disease involving the ovary as a primary manifestation. A series of 19 lymphomas and 1 granulocytic sarcoma. Cancer 34: 397–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cleary ML, Trela MJ, Weiss LM, Warnke R, Sklar J (1985) Most null large cell lymphomas are B lineage neoplasms. Lab Invest 53: 521–525PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Coico RF, Bhogal BS, Thorbecke GJ (1983) Relationship of germinal centres in lymphoid tissue to immunologic memory. VI. Transfer of B-cell memory with lymph node cells fractionated according to their receptors for peanut agglutinin. J Immunol 131: 2254–2257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Colby TV, Carrington CB (1983) Lymphoreticular tumors and infiltrates of the lung. Pathol Annu 18 (1): 27–70PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Compagno J, Oertel JE (1980) Malignant lymphoma and other lymphoproliferative disorders of the thyroid gland. A clinico-pathologic study of 245 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 74: 1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Corwin J, Lindberg RD (1979) Solitary plasmacytoma of bone versus extramedullary plasmacytoma and their relationship to multiple myeloma. Cancer 43: 1007–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cossman J, Neckers LM, Hsu S et al. (1984) Low-grade lymphomas. Expression of developmentally regulated B-cell antigens. Am J Pathol 115: 117–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Cousar JB, Stein RS, Flexner JM et al. (1979) Pathologic and immunologic features of bone marrow and peripheral blood involvement in follicular centre cell lymphomas. Lab Invest 40: 14 (abstract)Google Scholar
  33. Cullen MH, Lister TA, Brearley RL et al. (1979) Histological transformation of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A prospective study. Cancer 44: 645–651PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Curran RC, Jones EL (1978a) The lymphoid follicles of the human palatine tonsil. Clin Exp Immunol 31: 251–259PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Curran RC, Jones EL (1978b) Hodgkin’s disease: an immunohistochemical and histological study. J Pathol 125: 39–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dardick I, Sinnott NM, Holl R et al. (1983a) Nuclear morphology and morphometry of B lymphocyte transformation. Implications for follicular centre cell lymphomas. Am J Pathol 111: 35–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dardick I, Srinivasan R, Al-Jabi M (1983b) Signet-ring cell variant of large cell lymphoma. Ultrastruct Pathol 5: 195–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Dorfman RF (1974) Classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Lancet II: 961–962Google Scholar
  39. Dvoretsky P, Wood GS, Levy R, Warnke RA (1982) T-lymphocyte subsets in follicular lymphomas compared with those in non-neoplastic lymph nodes and tonsils. Hum Pathol 13: 618–625PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Enno A, Catovsky D, O’Brien M et al. (1979) “Prolymphocytoid” transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Br J Haematol 41: 9–18Google Scholar
  41. Epstein MA, Achong BG (1965) Fine structural organisation of human lymphoblasts of a tissue culture strain (EBI) from Burkitt’s lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 34: 241–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Evans HL (1982) Extranodal small lymphocytic proliferation: a clinico-pathologic and immunocytochemical study. Cancer 49: 84–96PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Filippa DA, Lieberman PH, Erlandson RA et al. (1978) A study of malignant lymphomas using light and ultramicroscopic cytochemical and immunologic technices. Correlation with clinical features. Am J Med 64: 259–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Flandrin G, Brouet JC, Daniel MT, Preud’homme JL (1975) Acute leukemia with Burkitt’s tumor cells: a study of 6 cases with special reference to lymphocyte surface markers. Blood 45: 183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fossum S, Ford WL (1985) The organisation of cell populations within lymph nodes: their origin, life history and functional relationships. Histopathology 9: 469–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Galton DAG, Catovsky D, Wiltshaw E (1978) Clinical spectrum of lymphoproliferative diseases. Cancer 42: 901–910PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gerard-Merchant R, Hamlin I, Lennert K et al. (1974) Classification of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Lancet II: 406–408Google Scholar
  48. Gibbs AR, Seal RME (1978) Primary lymphoproliferative conditions of lung. Thorax 33: 140–152PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gillespie JJ (1978) The ultrastructural diagnosis of diffuse large cell (“histiocytic”) lymphoma. Fine structural study of 30 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 2: 9–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gowing NFC (1976) Malignant lymphoma of the testes. In: Pugh RCB (ed) Pathology of the testes. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp 334–355Google Scholar
  51. Grogan TM, Richter LC, Payne CM, Rangel CS (1985) Signet-ring cell lymphoma of T-cell origin. An immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study relating giant vacuole formation to cytoplasmic sequestration of surface membrane. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 684–692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gwynne-Jenkins BA, Salm R (1971) Primary lymphosarcoma of lung. Br J Dis Chest 65: 225–230Google Scholar
  53. Habeshaw JA, Bailey D, Stansfeld AG, Greaves MF (1983) The cellular content of non Hodgkin lymphomas: a comprehensive analysis using monoclonal antibodies and other surface marker techniques. Br J Cancer 47: 327–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Haghighi P (1983) Primary small intestinal lymphoma and immunoproliferative small intestinal disease: an update. In: Sommers SC, Rosen PP (eds) Malignant lymphoma. A Pathology Annual Monograph. Appleton Century Crofts, Norwalk, Connecticut, pp 269–293Google Scholar
  55. Hamburger JI, Miller JM, Kini SR (1983) Lymphoma of the thyroid. Ann Intern Med 99: 685–693PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hanna MG Jr (1964) An autoradiographic study of the germinal centre in the spleen white pulp during early intervals of the immune response. Lab Invest 13: 95–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Harousseau JL, Flandrin G, Tricot G et al. (1981) Malignant lymphoma supervening in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and related disorders Richter’s syndrome: a study of 25 cases. Cancer 48: 1302–1308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Harris M, Eyden B, Read G (1981) Signet ring cell lymphoma: a rare variant of follicular lymphoma. J Clin Pathol 34: 884–891PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Harris NL, Bhan AK (1983) Distribution of T-cell subsets in follicular and diffuse lymphomas of B-cell type. Am J Pathol 113: 172–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Harris NL, Bhan AK (1985) B-cell neoplasms of the lymphocytic, lymphoplasmacytoid, and plasma cell types: immunohistologic analysis and clinical correlation. Hum Pathol 16: 829–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Harris NL, Data RE (1982) The distibution of neoplastic and normal B-lymphoid cells in nodular lymphomas: use of an immunoperoxidase technique on frozen sections. Hum Pathol 13: 610–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Harris NL, Poppema S, Data RE (1982) Demonstration of immunoglobulin in malignant lymphomas. Use of an immunoperoxidase technic on frozen sections. Am J Clin Pathol 78: 14–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harris NL, Nadler LM, Bhan AK (1984) Immunohistologic characterization of two malignant lymphomas of germinal centre type (centroblastic/centrocytic and centrocytic) with monoclonal antibodies. Follicular and diffuse lymphomas of small-cleaved-cell type are related but distinct entities. Am J Pathol 117: 262–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Heinz R, Stacher A, Pralle H et al. (1981) Lymphoplasmacytic/lymphoplasmacytoid lymphoma: a clinical entity distinct from chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Blut 43: 183–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Henry K, Farrer-Brown G (1977) Primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract. I. Plasma cell tumours. Histopathology 1: 53–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Herbert A, Wright DH, Isaacson PG, Smith JL (1984) Primary malignant lymphoma of the lung: histopathologic and immunologic evaluation of nine cases. Hum Pathol 15: 415–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Herrmann R, Barcos M, Stutzman L et al. (1982) The influence of histologic type on the incidence and duration of response in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer 49: 314–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Hertzer NR, Hoerr SO (1976) An interpretive review of lymphoma of the stomach. Surg Gynecol Obstet 143: 113–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hsu S, Jaffe ES (1984a) Phenotypic expression of B-lymphocytes. I. Identification with monoclonal antibodies in normal lymphoid tissues. Am J Pathol 114: 387–395PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Hsu SM, Jaffe ES (1984b) Phenotypic expression of B-lymphocytes. II. Immunoglobulin expression of germinal centre cells. Am J Pathol 114: 396–402PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Hsu SM, Cossman J, Jaffe ES (1983) Lymphocyte subsets in normal human lymphoid tissues. Am J Clin Pathol 80: 21–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Hyman GA, Wolff M (1976) Malignant lymphomas of the salivary glands. Review of the literature and report of 33 new cases, including four cases associated with the lymphoepithelial lesion. Am J Clin Pathol 65: 421–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Iossifides I, Mackay B, Butler JJ (1980) Signet-ring cell lymphoma. Ultrastruct Pathol 1: 511–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Isaacson P, Wright DH (1978a) Intestinal lymphoma associated with malabsorption. Lancet I: 67–70Google Scholar
  75. Isaacson P, Wright DH (1978b) Malignant histiocytosis of the intestine: its relationship to malabsorption and ulcerative jejunitis. Hum Pathol 9: 661–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Isaacson P, Wright DH (1983) Malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue, a distinctive type of B-cell lymphoma. Cancer 52: 1410–1416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Isaacson P, Wright DH, Judd MA et al. (1980) The nature of the immunoglobulin-containing cells in malignant lymphoma: an immunoperoxidase study. J Histochem Cytochem 28: 761–770PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Isaacson P, Al-Dewachi HS, Mason DY (1983) Middle Eastern intestinal lymphoma: a morphological and immunohistochemical study. J Clin Pathol 36: 489–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Isaacson PG, Maclennan KA, Subbuswamy SG (1984) Multiple lymphomatous polyposis of the gastrointestinal tract. Histopathology 8: 641–656PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Isaacson PG, Spencer J, Connolly CE et al. (1985) Malignant histiocytosis of the intestine: a T-cell lymphoma. Lancet II: 688–691Google Scholar
  81. Jacobson EB, Caporale LH, Thorbecke GJ (1975) Effect of thymus cell injections on germinal center formation in lymphoid tissues of nude (thymusless) mice. Cell Immunol 13: 416–430Google Scholar
  82. Jaffe ES, Shevach EM, Frank MM et al. (1974) Nodular lymphoma: evidence for origin from follicular B lymphocytes. N Engl J Med 290: 813–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Jaffe ES, Braylan RC, Nanba K, Frank MM, Berard CW (1977) Functional markers: a new perspective on malignant lymphomas. Cancer Treat Rep 61: 953–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Jakobiec FA, Iwamoto T, Knowles DM (1982) Ocular adnexal lymphoid tumours. Correlativ ultrastructural and immunologic marker studies. Arch Ophthalmol 100: 84–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Jancelewicz Z, Takatsuki K, Sugai S, Pruzanski W (1975) IgD multiple myeloma. Arch Intern Med 135: 87–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Jennette JC, Reddick RL, Saunders AW et al. (1982) Diffuse T-cell lymphoma preceded by nodular lymphoma. Am J Clin Pathol 78: 242–248PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Johnson GJ, Oken MM, Anderson JR et al. (1984) Central nervous system relapse in unfavourable-histology non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas: is prophylaxis indicated. Lancet II: 685–687Google Scholar
  88. Jones SE, Fuks Z, Bull M et al. (1973) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. IV. Clinicopathologic correlation in 405 cases. Cancer 31: 806–823PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Kadin ME (1982) Possible origin of the Reed-Sternberg cell from an interdigitating reticulum cell. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 601–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Kadin ME, Stites DP, Levy R, Warnke R (1978) Exogenous immunoglobulin and the macrophage origin of Reed-Sternberg cells in Hodgkin’s disease. N Engl J Med 299: 1208–1214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Kaiserling E (1977) Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphome: Ultrastruktur and Cytogenese. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  92. Kaplan HS, Gartner S (1977) “Sternberg-Reed” giant cells of Hodgkin’s disease: cultivation in vitro, heterotransplantation, and characterisation as neoplastic macrophages. Int J Cancer 19: 511–525Google Scholar
  93. Kerl H, Kresbach H (1984) Germinal centre cell-derived lymphomas of the skin. J Dermatol Surg Oncol 10: 291–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Kim H, Dorfman RF, Rappaport H (1978) Signet-ring cell lymphoma: a rare morphologic and functional expression of nodular (follicular) lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol 2: 119–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kjeldsberg CR, Marty J (1981) Prolymphocytic transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer 48: 2447–2457PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Kjeldsberg CR, Wilson JF, Berard CW (1983) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in children. Hum Pathol 14: 612–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Klein G (1971) Immunological aspects of Burkitt’s lymphoma. Adv Immunol 14: 187–250PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Knowles DM, Jakobiec FA, Halper JP (1979) Immunologic characterisation of ocular adnexal lymphoid neoplasms Am J Ophthalmol 87: 603–619Google Scholar
  99. Knowles DM, Halper JP, Jakobiec FA (1982) The immunologic characterisation of 40 extranodal lymphoid infiltrates. Usefulness in distinguishing between benign pseudolymphoma and malignant lymphoma. Cancer 49: 2321–2335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Knowles DM, Halper JP, Azzo W et al. (1983) Reactivity of monoclonal antibodies Leul and OKT1 with malignant human lymphoid cells. Correlation with conventional cell markers. Cancer 52: 1369–1377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Knowles DM, Dodson L, Burke JS et al. (1985) Sig− E− (“null-cell”) non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Multiparametric determination of their B- or T-cell lineage. Am J Pathol 120: 356–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Koburg E (1967) Cell production and cell migration in the tonsil. In: Cottier H, Odartchenko N, Schindler R, Congdon CC (eds) Germinal centres in the immune responses. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 176–182Google Scholar
  103. Koss MN, Hochholzer L, Nichols PW, Wehunt PW, Lazarus AA (1983) Primary non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and pseudolymphoma of lung: a study of 161 patients. Hum Pathol 14: 1024–1038PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Krishnan J, Li C, Su WPD (1983) Cutaneous lymphomas: Correlation of histochemical and immunohistochemical characteristics and clinicopathologic features. Am J Clin Pathol 79: 157–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Kuhn C (1967) Nuclear bodies and intranuclear globulin inclusions in Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia. Lab Invest 17: 404–415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lauder I, Bird CC, Child JA, Grigor I (1985) Surface membrane phenotypic expression and treatment response of malignant lymphomas. J Pathol 145: 259–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Law IP, Dick FR, Blom J, Bergevin PR (1975) Involvement of the central nervous system in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Cancer 36: 225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Leech JH, Glick AD, Waldron JA, Flexner JM, Horn RG, Collins RD (1975) Malignant lymphomas of follicular centre cell origin in man. I. Immunologic studies. J Natl Cancer Inst 54: 11–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Lennert K (1973) Follicular lymphoma: a tumor of the germinal centres. In: Akazaki K (ed) Malignant diseases of the haemopoietic system. Gann Monograph on Cancer Research No 15. University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp 217–231Google Scholar
  110. Lennert K (1978) Malignant lymphomas other than Hodgkin’s disease. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 111–136Google Scholar
  111. Lennert K (1981) Histopathology of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (based on the Kiel classification). Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  112. Lennert K, Müller-Hermelink HK (1975) Lymphozyten und ihre Funktionsformen. Morphologie Organisation und immunologische Bedeutung. Verh Anat Ges 69: 19–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Lennert K, Mohri N, Stein H et al. (1975) The histopathology of malignant lymphoma. Br J Haematol 31 (suppl): 193–203Google Scholar
  114. Leong AS-Y (1983) A critique of some contemporary classifications of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Which one should we now use? Pathology 15: 437–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Leong AS-Y, Forbes I J, Cowled PA et al. (1979) Surface marker studies in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Pathology 11: 461–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Leong AS-Y, Sage RE, Kinnear GC, Forbes IJ (1980) Preferential epidermo trophism in adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma. Am J Surg Pathol 4: 421–430PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Lewin KJ, Ranchod M, Dorfman RF (1978) Lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract: a study of 117 cases presenting with gastrointestinal disease. Cancer 42: 693–707PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Lin J J, Farha GJ, Taylor RJ (1980) Pseuodolymphoma of the breast. In a study of 8,654 consecutive tylectomies and mastectomies. Cancer 45: 973–978Google Scholar
  119. Linch DC, Jones HM, Berliner N et al. (1985) Hodgkin-cell leukaemia of B-cell origin. Lancet I: 78–80Google Scholar
  120. Lindsay S, Dailey ME (1955) Malignant lymphoma of the thyroid gland and its relation to Hashimoto disease: a clinical and pathologic study of 8 patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 15: 1332–1353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Long JC, Alsenberg AC (1975) Richter’s syndrome: a terminal complication of chronic lymphocytic leukemia with distinct clinico-pathologic features. Am J Clin Pathol 63: 786–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Long JC, Mihm MC, Qazi R (1976) Malignant lymphoma of the skin. A clinicopathologic study of lymphoma other than mycosis fungoides diagnosed by skin biopsy. Cancer 38: 1282–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Lukes RJ, Collins RD (1974) Immunologic characterisation of human malignant lymphomas. Cancer 34: 1488–1503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Lukes RJ, Taylor CR, Parker JW et al. (1978) A morphologic and immunologic surface marker study of 299 cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas and related leukemias. Am J Pathol 90: 461–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. MacLennan KA, Bennett MH, Tu A (1981) The pathology of primary gastrointestinal lymphomas. (Report no. 10) Clin Radiol 32: 513–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Magrath IT, Ziegler JL (1979) Bone marrow involvement in Burkitt’s lymphoma and its relationship to acute B-cell leukemia. Leuk Res 4: 33–59Google Scholar
  127. Magrath IT, Freeman CB, Pizzo P (1980) Characterisation of lymphoma-derived cell lines: comparison of cell lines positive and negative for Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen. II. Surface Markers. JNCI 64: 477–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Mahoney JP, Alexander RW (1980) Primary histiocytic lymphoma of bone: a light and ultrastructural study of 4 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 4: 149–161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Mambo NC, Burke JS, Butler JJ (1977) Primary malignant lymphomas of the breast. Cancer 39: 2033–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Mann RB, Jaffe ES, Braylan RC et al. (1976) Non-endemic Burkitt’s lymphoma. A B-cell tumor related to germinal centres. N Engl J Med 295: 685–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Mann RB, Jaffe ES, Berard CW (1979) Malignant lymphomas — a conceptual understanding of morphologic diversity. A review. Am J Pathol 94: 105–192PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Mathe G, Rappaport H, O’Connor GT et al. (1976) Histological and cytological typing of neoplastic disease of haemopoietic and lymphoid tissues. In: World Health Organisation international histologic classification of tumors No 14. World Health Organisation, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  133. Maurer R, Taylor CR, Terry R, Lukes RJ (1979) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the thyroid A clinicopathologic review of 29 cases applying the Lukes-Collins classification and an immunoperox- idase method. Virchows Arch [A] 383: 293–317Google Scholar
  134. McDermott MR, Bienenstock J (1979) Evidence for a common mucosal immunologic system. I. Migration of B immunoblasts into intestinal, respiratory and genital tissues. J Immunol 122: 1892–1898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. McNamara J J, Kingsley WB, Paulson DL et al. (1969) Primary lymphosarcoma of lung. Ann Surg 169: 133–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Mellsted H, Pettersson D, Holm G (1978) Lymphocyte subpopulations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Acta Med Scand 204: 485–489Google Scholar
  137. Moir DH (1980) Signet-ring cell lymphoma: a case report. Pathology 12: 119–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Moore I, Wright DH (1984) Primary gastric lymphoma — a tumor of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. A histological and immunohistochemical study of 36 cases. Histopathology 8: 1025–1039PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Morgan DR, Holgate CS, Dixon MF, Bird CC (1985) Primary small intestinal lymphoma: a study of 39 cases. J Pathol 147: 211–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Mori Y, Lennert K (1969) Electron microscopic atlas of lymph node cytology and pathology. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  141. Nanba K, Jaffe ES, Braylan RC et al. (1977) Alkaline phosphatase-positive malignant lymphoma: a subtype of B-cell lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol 68: 535–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Nathwani BN (1979) A critical analysis of the classifications of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Cancer 44: 347–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Navas JJ, Battifora H (1977) Primary lymphoma of the breast. Ultrastructural study of two cases. Cancer 39: 2025–2032PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Navas-Palacios J J., Valdes MD, Laheurta-Palacios JJ (1983) Signet-ring cell lymphoma: ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of three varieties. Cancer 52: 1613–1623PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Osborne BM, Butler JJ, Mackay B (1980) Sinusoidal large cell (“histiocytic”) lymphoma. Cancer 46: 2484–2491PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Osborne BM, Mackay B, Butler JJ, Ordonez NG (1983) Large cell lymphoma with microvillus-like projections: an ultrastructural study. Am J Clin Pathol 79: 443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Otto HF, Bettmann I, Weltzien JV, Gebbers JO (1981) Primary intestinal lymphoma. Virchows Arch [A] 391: 9–31Google Scholar
  148. Paladugu RR, Bearman RM, Rappaport H (1980) Malignant lymphoma with primary manifestation in the gonad A clinicopathologic study of 38 patients. Cancer 45: 561–571PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Palutke M, Eisenberg L, Michandani I, Tabaczka P, Husain M (1982) Malignant lymphoma of small cleaved lymphocytes of the follicular mantle zone. Blood 59: 317–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pangalis GA, Nathwani BN, Rappaport H (1977) Malignant lymphoma, well differentiated lymphocytic. Its relationship with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and macroglobulinemia of Waldenstrom. Cancer 39: 999–1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Papadimitriou CS, Papacharalampous NX (1979) Distribution of T lymphocytes in follicular lymphomas as revealed by acid alpha-naphthol acetate esterase. J Clin Pathol 32: 808–813PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Pinkus GS, Said JW (1978) Characterization of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas using multiple cell markers. Immunologic, morphologic and cytochemical studies of 72 cases. Am J Pathol 94: 349–380Google Scholar
  153. Pinkus GS, Said JW (1985) Hodgkin’s disease, lymphocyte predominance type, nodular — a distinct entity? Unique staining profile for L & H variants of Reed-Sternberg cells defined by monoclonal antibodies to leukocyte common antigen, granulocyte-specific antigen, and B-cell-specific antigen. Am J Pathol 118: 1–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Pinkus GS, Said JW, Hargreaves HK (1979) Malignant lymphoma, T-cell type: a distinct morphologic variant with large multilobated nuclei, with a report of four cases. Am J Clin Pathol 72: 540–550PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Poppema S, Kaiserling E, Lennert K (1979) Hodgkin’s disease with lymphocytic predominance, nodular type (nodular paragranuloma) and progressively transformed germinal centres. A cytohis- tological study. Histopathology 3: 295–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Poppema S, Elema JD, Halie MR (1981a) Alkaline phosphatase positive lymphomas: a morphologic, immunologic and enzyme histochemical study. Cancer 47: 1303–1312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Poppema S, Bhan AK, Reinherz EL et al. (1981b) Distribution of T cell subsets in human lymph nodes. J Exp Med 153: 30–41PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Poppema S, Bhan AK, Reinherz EL (1982) In situ immunologic characterisation of cellular constituents in lymph nodes and spleens involved by Hodgkin’s disease. Blood 59: 226–232Google Scholar
  159. Radaszkiewicz T, Dragosics B (1980) Primary lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract: a clinicopathologic study of 60 cases. Pathol Res Pract 169: 353–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Ranchod M, Lewin KJ, Dorfman RF (1978) Lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract: a study of 26 cases and review of the literature. Am J Surg Pathol 2: 383–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Rappaport H (1966) Tumors of the hemopoietic system. In: Atlas of tumor pathology, Series 3, Fascicle 8. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, p 131Google Scholar
  162. Rappaport H, Winter WJ, Hicks EB (1956) Follicular lymphoma: a re-evaluation of its position in the scheme of malignant lymphoma, based on a survey of 253 cases. Cancer 9: 792–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Richter MN (1928) Generalised reticular cell sarcoma of lymph nodes associated with lymphatic leukemia. Am J Pathol 4: 285–292PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Rilke F, Pilotti S, Carbone A, Lombardi L (1978) Morphology of lymphatic cells and of their derived tumors. J Clin Pathol 31: 1009–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Risdall R, Hoppe RT, Warnke R (1979) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. A study of the evolution of the disease based upon 92 autopsied cases. Cancer 44: 529–542PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Rudders RA, Ahl ET, Delellis RA et al. (1983) Surface marker identification of small cleaved follicular center cell lymphomas with a highly favourable prognosis. Cancer Res 42: 349–356Google Scholar
  167. Saltzstein SL (1963) Pulmonary malignant lymphomas and pseudolymphomas: classification, therapy and prognosis. Cancer 16: 928–955PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Saraga P, Hurlimann J, Ozello L (1981) Lymphomas and pseudo-lymphomas of the alimentary tract. An immunohistochemical study with clinical pathologic correlations. Hum Pathol 12: 713–723PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Schmid U, Helbron D, Lennert K (1982) Development of malignant lymphoma in myoepithelial sialadenitis (Sjogren’s syndrome). Virchows Arch [A] 395: 11–43Google Scholar
  170. Schneider DR, Taylor CR, Parker JW, Cramer AC, Meyer PR, Lukes RJ (1985) Immunoblastic sarcoma of T- and B-cell types: morphologic description and comparison. Hum Pathol 16: 885–900PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Shustik C, Bergasgel DE, Pruzanski W (1976) Kappa and lambda light chain disease: survival rates and clinical manifestation. Blood 48: 41–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Sibley R, Rosai J, Froelich W (1980) A case for the panel: anemone cell tumor. Ultrastruct Pathol 1: 449–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Silberman S, Fresco R, Steinecker PH (1984) Signet-ring cell lymphoma: a report of a case and review of the literature. Am J Clin Pathol 81: 358–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Spiro S, Galton DAG, Wiltshaw E, Lohmann RC (1975) Follicular lymphoma: a survey of 75 cases with special reference to the syndrome resembling chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Br J Cancer 31 (suppl 11): 60–72Google Scholar
  175. Splinter TAW, Noorloss A, van Heerde P (1978) CLL and diffuse histiocytic lymphoma in 1 patient: clonal proliferation of two different B cells. Scand J Haematol 20: 29–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Stein H, Bonk A, Tolksdorf G et al. (1980) Immunohistologic analysis of the organization of normal lymphoid tissue and non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. J Histochem Cytochem 28: 746–760PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Stein H, Gerdes J, Mason DY (1982) The normal and malignant germinal centre. Clin Haematol 11: 531–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Stein H, Mason DY, Gerdes J et al. (1985) The expression of the Hodgkin’s disease associated antigen Ki-1 in reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissue: evidence that Reed-Sternberg cells and histiocytic malignancies are derived from activated lymphoid cells. Blood 66: 848–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Stein RS, Cousar J, Flexner JM et al. (1979) Malignant lymphomas of follicular centre cell origin in man. III. Prognostic features. Cancer 44: 2226–2243Google Scholar
  180. Stein RS, Cousar J, Flexner JM, Collins RD (1980) Correlations between immunologic markers and histopathologic classifications: clinical implications. Semin Oncol 7: 244–254PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Swerdlow SH, Murray LJ (1984) Natural killer (Leu7-I-) cells in reactive lymphoid tissues and malignant lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol 81: 459–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Swerdlow SH, Habeshaw JA, Murray LJ et al. (1983) Centrocytic lymphoma: a distinct clinicopathologic and immunologic entity. A multiparameter study of 18 cases at diagnosis and relapse. Am J Pathol 113: 181–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Swerdlow SH, Murray LJ, Habeshaw J A, Stansfelt AG (1985) B- and T-cell subsets in follicular centroblastic/centrocytic (cleaved follicular centre cell) lymphoma: an immunohistologic analysis of 26 lymph nodes and 3 spleens. Hum Pathol 16: 339–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Talal N, Bumin JJ (1964) The development of malignant lymphoma in the course of Sjogren’s syndrome. Am J Med 36: 529–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Tateno M, Yoshiki T, Itoh T et al. (1983) A case of primary B-cell lymphoma of the breast. Cancer 52: 671–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. Taylor CR (1983) Upon the enigma of Hodgkin’s disease and the Reed-Sternberg cell. In: Bennett JM (ed) Controversies in the management of lymphomas. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, pp 91–108Google Scholar
  187. Taylor CR, Russell R, Lukes RJ, Davis RL (1978) An immunohistological study of immunoglobulin content of primary central nervous system lymphomas. Cancer 41: 2198–2205Google Scholar
  188. The Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Classification Project (1982) National Cancer Institute sponsored study of classifications of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Summary and description of a Working Formulation for clinical usage. Cancer 49: 2112–2135Google Scholar
  189. Thorbecke GJ, Romano TJ, Lerman SP (1974) Regulatory mechanisms and differentiation of lymphoid tissue with particular reference to germinal centre development. In: Brent L, Holborow EJ (eds) Progress in immunology II, vol 3. North Holland, Amsterdam, p 25Google Scholar
  190. Tindle BH (1984) Teaching monograph. Malignant lymphomas. Am J Pathol 116: 119–174PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Trump DL, Mann RB, Phelps R et al. (1980) Richter’s syndrome: diffuse histiocytic lymphoma in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A report of 5 cases and review of the literature. Am J Med 68: 539–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. Tubbs RR, Sheibani K, Weiss RA et al. (1981) Immunohistochemistry of fresh-frozen lymphoid tissue with a direct immunoperoxidase technic. Am J Clin Pathol 75: 171–176Google Scholar
  193. Turner RR, Colby TV, MacKintosh FR (1981) Testicular lymphoma: a clinicopathologic study of 35 cases. Cancer 48: 2095–2102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Turner RR, Egbert P, Warnke RA (1984) Lymphocytic infiltrates of the conjunctiva and orbit: immunohistochemical staining of 16 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 81: 447–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. van den Tweel JG, Taylor CR, Parker JW, Lukes RJ (1978) Immunoglobulin inclusions in non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol 69: 306–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. van Furth R, Cohn ZA, Hirsch JG et al. (1972) The mononuclear phagocytic system: a new classification of macrophages, monocytes and their precursor cells. Bull WHO 46: 845–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. van Heerde P, Feltkamp CA, Feltkamp-Vroom TM, Koudstal J, van Unnik JAM (1980) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopical findings in relation to lightmicroscopy. Cancer 46: 2210–2220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. Venables GS, Proctor SJ, Bates D et al. (1980) Intracranial disease in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Q J Med 59: 111–131Google Scholar
  199. Vimadalal SD, Said JW, Voyles H (1983) Gastric lymphoreticular neoplasms: an immunologic study of 36 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 80: 792–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. Warnke R, Levy R (1978) Immunopathology of follicular lymphomas. A model of B-lymphocyte homing. N Engl J Med 298: 481–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. Warnke RA, Kim H, Fuks Z, Dorfman RF (1977) The co-existence of nodular and diffuse patterns in nodular non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Significance and clinico-pathologic correlation. Cancer 40: 1229–1233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. Weisenburger DD, Nathwani BN, Diamond LW et al. (1981) Malignant lymphoma, intermediate lymphocytic type: a clinicopathologic study of 42 cases. Cancer 48: 1415–1425PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Weisenburger DD, Kim H, Rappaport H (1982) Mantle-zone lymphoma: a follicular variant of intermediate lymphocytic lymphoma. Cancer 49: 1429–1438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Weiss LM, Wood GS, Dorfman RF (1985a) T-cell signet-ring cell lymphoma. A histologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical study of two cases. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 273–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Weiss LM, Yousem SA, Warnke RA (1985b) Non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas of the lung. A study of 19 cases emphasising the utility of frozen section immunologic studies in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 480–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Weissman IL, Warnke R, Butcher EC et al. (1978) The lymphoid system. Its normal architecture and the potential for understanding the system through the study of lymphoproliferative diseases. Hum Pathol 9: 25–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Willis RA (1948) Pathology of tumours. Butterworths, LondonGoogle Scholar
  208. Wiltshaw E (1976) The natural history of extramedullar plasmacytoma and its relation to solitary myeloma of bone and myelomatosis. Medicine 55: 217–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Wolf J A, Spjut H (1981) Focal lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach preceding gastric lymphoma: case report and review of the literature. Cancer 48: 2518–2523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. Wright DH (1964) Burkitt’s tumor. A postmortem study of 50 cases Br J Surg 51: 245–251Google Scholar
  211. Wright DH, Isaacson P (1983) Biopsy pathology of the lymphoreticular system. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  212. Yamanaka N, Ishii Y, Koshiba H et al. (1980) A study of surface markers in gastrointestinal lymphoma. Gastroenterology 79: 673–677PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. York JC, Glick AD, Cousar JB, Collins RE (1984) Changes in the appearance of hemopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms: clinical, pathologic, and biologic implications. Hum Pathol 15: 11–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. York JC II, Cousar JB, Glick AD et al. (1985) Morphologic and immunologic evidence of composite B- and T-cell lymphomas. A report of three cases developing in follicular centre cell lymphomas. Am J Clin Pathol 84: 35–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. Zulman J, Jaffe R, Talal N (1978) Evidence that the malignant lymphoma of Sjogren’s syndrome is a monoclonal B-cell neoplasm. N Engl J Med 299: 1215–1220PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ian J. Forbes
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anthony S-Y. Leong
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.University of AdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.The Queen Elizabeth HospitalWoodvilleAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Medical and Veterinary ScienceAdelaideAustralia
  4. 4.Department of PathologyUniversity of AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations