Lymph Node Aspiration Biopsy and Nodal Status in Penile Cancer
In patients with penile cancer, as in those with other urological malignancies, treatment and prognosis are related to tumour staging. The main factor limiting the 5-year survival rate is the presence of nodal metastasis [1, 2]; therefore knowledge of the nodal status is decisive. As previously mentioned (see Chap. 29), lymphadenectomy cannot be proposed as a routine procedure because of the morbidity and mortality accompanying this surgery [3, 4]. Pedal lymphography is not completely satisfactory, and even penile lymphography in conjunction with surgical biopsy of the sentinel node, as proposed by Cabanas . has shown some limitations . For these reasons, we use aspiration cytology to complete preoperative staging of the disease.
- 2.Kuruvilla JI, Garlick FH, Mammen KE (1971) Results of surgical treatment of carcinoma of the penis. Aust NZ J Surg 41:157–159Google Scholar