Soft Tissue Uptake of Bone Agents

  • H. W. Gray

Abstract

This volume, and others, attest to the wide-ranging application of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals to diagnostic problems in clinical practice. There was early recognition that valuable information on the kidney and urinary tract could be obtained incidentally (Park et al. 1973) by virtue of the prompt renal excretion of these agents. Other soft tissues were thought to take up the 99mTc phosphates because of macro- or microscopic tissue calcification (Silberstein et al. 1975). The last 10 years, however, have witnessed a plethora of case reports showing accumulation of bone-seeking agents in both neoplastic and non-neoplastic soft tissue. Our simplistic concept of a uniform mechanism for soft tissue deposition has therefore become untenable, and despite considerable research effort our overall understanding of the process is still in its infancy.

Keywords

Lymphoma Sarcoma Doxorubicin Myeloma Hydroxyapatite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adams KJ, Shuler SE, Witherspoon LR, Neely HR (1980) A retrospective analysis of renal abnormalities detected in bone scans. Clin Nucl Med 5: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahmad M, Dubiel JP, Verdon TA et al. (1976) Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate myocardial imaging in patients with and without left ventricular aneurysm. Circulation 58: 833–835Google Scholar
  3. Ajmani SK, Lerner SR, Pirchen FJ (1977) Bone scan artifact caused by hyperhydrosis: case report. J Nucl Med 18: 801–802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Akmal M, Goldstein DA, Telfer N, Wilkinson E, Massry SG (1978) Resolution of muscle calcification in rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. Ann Intern Med 89: 928–930PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alfrey AC, Solomons CC, Ciricillo J, Miller NL (1976) Extraosseous calcification: evidence for abnormal pyrophosphate metabolism in uraemia. J Clin Invest 57: 692–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aprile C, Bernardo G, Carena M et al. (1978) Accumulation of 99mTc-Sn-pyrophosphate in pleural effusions. Eur] Nucl Med 3: 219–222Google Scholar
  7. Arbona GL, Antonmattei S, Tetalman MR, Scheu JD (1980) Tc-99m-diphosphonate distribution in a patient with hypercalcaemia and metastatic calcification. Clin Nucl Med 5: 422PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Armstrong EA, Harwood-Nash DCF, Ritz CR, Chuang SH, Pettersson H, Martin DJ (1982) CT of neuroblastomas and ganglioneuromas in children. AJR 139: 571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Atkins HL, Oster ZH (1984) Myocardial uptake of a bone tracer associated with hypercalcaemia. Clin Nucl Med 9: 613–615PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barth KH, Alderson PQ, Strandberg JD, Strauss HW, White RI (1978) 99mTc-pyrophosphate imaging in experimental mesenteric infarction: relationship of tracer uptake to the degree of ischaemic injury. Radiology 129: 491–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baumert JE, Lantieri RL, Horning S, McDougall IR (1980) Liver metastases of breast carcinoma detected on 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate bone scan. AJR 134: 389–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Berg GR, Kalisher L, Osmond JD, Pendergrass HP, Potsaid MS (1973) 99mTc-diphosphonate concentration in primary breast carcinoma. Radiology 109: 393–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Biello DR, Coleman RE, Stanley RJ (1976) Correlation of renal images on bone scan and intravenous pyelogram. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 127: 633–636Google Scholar
  14. Billinghurst MW, Rempel S, Westendorf BA (1979) Radiation decomposition of technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med 20: 138–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bingham JB, McKusick KA, Strauss HW (1983) Cardiovascular nuclear medicine In: Maisey MN, Britton KE, Gilday DL (eds) Clinical nuclear medicine. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 1–40Google Scholar
  16. Blair RJ, Schroeder ET, McAfee JG, Duxbury CE (1975) Skeletal muscle uptake of bone seeking agents in both traumatic and non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure. J Nucl Med 16: 515–516Google Scholar
  17. Bledin AG, Kim EE, Haynie TP (1982) Bone scintigraphic findings related to unilateral mastectomy. Eur J Nucl Med 7: 500–501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bonte FJ, Parkey RW, Graham KD, Moore J, Stokely EM (1974) A new method for radionuclide imaging of myocardial infarcts. Radiology 110: 473–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bossuyt A, Verbeelen D, Jonckheer MH, Six R (1979) Usefulness of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate scintigraphy in nephro-calcinosis. Clin Nucl Med 4: 333–334PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Braun SD, Lisbona R, Novales-Diaz JA, Sniderman A (1979) Myocardial uptake of 99mTc-phosphate tracer in amyloidosis. Clin Nucl Med 4: 244–245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brill DR (1981) Radionuclide imaging of non-neoplastic soft tissue disorders. Semin Nucl Med 11: 277–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Buja LM, Tofe AJ, Kulkarni PV et al. (1977) Sites and mechanisms of localisation of technetium-99m phosphorus radiopharmaceuticals in acute myocardial infarcts and other tissues. J Clin Invest 60: 724–740PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burnett KR, Lyons KP, Theron Brown W (1984) Uptake of osteotropic radionuclides in the breast. Semin Nucl Med 14: 48–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Buxton-Thomas MS, Wraight EP (1983) High renal activity on bone scintigrams. A sign of hypercalcaemia. Br J Radiol 56: 911–914PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Byun HH, Rodman, SG, Chung KE (1976) Soft tissue concentration of 99mTc-phosphates associated with injections of iron dextran complex. J Nucl Med 17: 374–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carlson DH, Simon H, Wegner W (1977) Bone scanning and diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy secondary to herniated lumbar discs. Neurology 27: 791–793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Charkes ND (1979) Mechanisms of skeletal tracer uptake. J Nucl Med 20: 794–795PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Chaudhuri TK (1976) Over uptake of 99mTc-diphosphonate. Radiology 119: 485–486PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chaudhuri TK, Chaudhuri TK, Gulesserian HP, Christie JH, Tonami N (1974) Extraosseous noncalcified soft tissue uptake of 99mTc-polyphosphate. J Nucl Med 15: 1054–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Chaynes ZW, Strashun AM (1980) Improved renal screening on bone scans. Clin Nucl Med 5: 94–97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Chew FS, Hudson TM, Enneking WF (1981) Radionuclide imaging of soft tissue neoplasms. Semin Nucl Med 11: 266–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chhabria PB, Stankey RM, Pinsky ST (1977) Extraskeletal uptake of 99mTc-Sn-pyrophosphate in hypercalcaemia associated with carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Clin Nucl Med 2: 87–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Choy D, Murray IPC, Hoschi R (1981) The effect of iron on biodistribution of bone scanning agents in humans. Radiology 140: 197–202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Citrin DL, McKillop JH (1978) Atlas of technetium bone scans. Bohn, Scheltema and Holkema, Utrecht, pp 5–29Google Scholar
  35. Citrin DL, Bessent RG, McGinley E, Gordon D (1975) Dynamic studies with 99mTc-HEDP in normal subjects and inpatients with bone tumours. J Nucl Med 16: 886–889PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Conger JD, Alfrey AC (1976) Scanning for pulmonary calcification. Ann Intern Med 84: 224–225Google Scholar
  37. Conger JD, Hammond WS, Alfrey AC, Contguglia SR, Stanford RE, Huffer WE (1975) Pulmonary calcification in chronic dialysis patients: clinical and pathologic studies. Ann Intern Med 83: 330–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Constable AR, Cranage RW (1981) Pitfalls of absent or faint kidney sign on bone scan. J Nucl Med 22: 658PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Conway JJ, Weiss SC, Khentigan A, Tofe AJ, Thane TT (1979) Gallbladder and bowl localisation of bone imaging radiopharmaceuticals. J Nucl Med 20: 622Google Scholar
  40. Conway JJ, Weiss S, Van Duzee BF, Deprato DW (1982) A comparative study of the effects of instant and generator produced technetium-99m on the nonosseous localisation of skeletal imaging agents in children. J Nucl Med 23: P109Google Scholar
  41. Cornelius EA (1982) Nuclear medicine imaging in rhabdomyolysis. Clin Nucl Med 7: 462–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Costello P, Gramm HF, Steinberg D (1977) Simultaneous occurrence of functional asplenia and splenic accumulation of diphosphonate in metastatic breast carcinoma. J Nucl Med 18: 1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Crawford SA, Gumerman LW (1978) Alteration of body distribution of 99mTc-pyrophosphate by radiographic contrast material. Clin Nucl Med 3: 305–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dewanjee MK, Kahn PC (1976) Mechanism of localisation of 99mTc-labelled pyrophosphate and tetracycline in infarcted myocardium. J Nucl Med 17: 639–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dhawan V, Sziklas JJ, Spencer RP, Gordon IJ (1977) Surgically related extravasation of urine detected on bone scan. Clin Nucl Med 2: 411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Echeuarria RA, Bonanno C, Davis DK (1977) Uptake of 99mTc pyrophosphate in liver necrosis. Clin Nucl Med 9: 322–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Edeling CJ (1983) 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate uptake in a primary Wilms’ tumour. Eur J Nucl Med 8: 30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Falk RH, Lee VW, Rubinow A, Hood WB, Cohen AS (1983) Sensitivity of technetium-99m pyrophosphate scintigraphy in diagnosing cardiac amyloidosis. Am J Cardiol 51: 826–830PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Fink-Bennet D, Dworkin H (1977) Incidental detection of a horseshoe kidney on radionuclide bone images. Radiology 123: 392Google Scholar
  50. Floyd JL, Prather JL (1977) 99mTc-EHDP uptake in ischemic muscle. Clin Nucl Med 2: 281–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fogelman I, McKillop JH, Boyle IT, Greig WR (1977) Absent kidney sign associated with symmetrical and uniformly increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical by the skeleton. Eur J Nucl Med 2: 257–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Francis MD, Russell RGG, Fleisch H (1969) Diphosphonates inhibit formation of calcium phosphate crystals in vitro and pathological calcification in vivo. Science 165: 1264–1266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Garcia AC, Yeh SDJ, Benua SCD, Benua RS (1977) Accumulation of bone seeking radionuclides in liver metastases from colon carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med 2: 265–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Garter RA, McCartney DJ (1967) Pathological tissue calcifications in man. Arch Pathol 84: 346–353Google Scholar
  55. Gerhold JP, Klingensmith WC, Loeffel SC (1980) Focal uptake of Tc-99m-MDP in renal metastases from squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Clin Nucl Med 5: 522PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gilbert LA, Weiss MA, Gelfand MJ, Hawkins HH, Nishiyama H, Axon BJ (1983) Detection of renal metastasis of osteosarcoma by bone scan. Clin Nucl Med 7: 325–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Glass EC, DeNardo GL, Hines HH (1980) Immediate renal imaging and renography with 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate to assess renal blood flow, excretory function and anatomy. Radiology 135: 187–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Glimcher MJ, Krane SM (1968) The organisation and structure of bone and the mechanism of calcification. In: Ramachandron GN (ed) Treatise on collagen. Academic, New York, pp 137–153Google Scholar
  59. Go RT, Doty DB, Chiu CL, Christie JH (1975) A new method of diagnosing myocardial contusion in man by radionuclide imaging. Radiology 116: 107–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Goy W, Crowe WJ (1976) Splenic accumulation of 99mTc-diphosphonate in a patient with sickle cell disease: case report. J Nucl Med 17: 108–109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Grames GM, Jansen C, Carlsen EN, Davidson TR (1975) The abnormal bone scan in intracranial lesions. Radiology 115: 129–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Guiberteau MJ, Potsaid MS, McKusick KA (1976) Accumulation of 99mTc diphosphonate in four patients with hepatic neoplasm: case reports. J Nucl Med 17: 1060–1061PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Harbert JC, Vieras F, Boyd CM (1976) Focal renal activity on bone scans. J Nucl Med 17: 426–427PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hardy JG, Anderson GS, Newble GM (1976) Uptake of 99mTc-pyrophosphate by metastatic extragenital seminoma. J Nucl Med 17: 1105–1106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Harwood SJ (1978) Splenic visualisation using 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate in a patient with sickle cell disease. Clin Nucl Med 3: 308–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Haseman MK (1983) Accumulation of a bone imaging agent in liver metastases from prostatic carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med 8: 488–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hattner RS, Miller SW, Schimmel D (1975) Significance of renal asymmetry in bone scans: experience of 795 cases. J Nucl Med 16: 161–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Heck LL (1980) Extraosseous localisation of phosphate bone agents. Semin Nucl Med 10: 311–316PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Herry JY, Chevet D, Moisan A, Le Pogamp P, Lejeune JJ, Kerdiles Y (1981) Pulmonary uptake of Tc-99m-labelled methylene diphosphonate in a patient with a parathyroid adenoma. J Nucl Med 22: 888–890PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Holmes RA, (1974) Diffuse interstitial pulmonary calcification. JAMA 230: 1018–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Holmes RA, Manoli RS, Isitman AT (1975) Tc-99m labelled phosphates as an indicator of breast pathology. J Nucl Med 16: 536Google Scholar
  72. Howman-Giles RB, Gilday DL, Ash JM (1979) Radionuclide skeletal survey in neuroblastoma. Radiology 131: 497–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Jackman SJ, Maher FT, Hattery RR (1974) Detection of renal cell carcinoma with 99mTc polyphosphate imaging of bone. Mayo Clin Proc 49: 297–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jengo JA, Mena I, Joe SH, Criley JM (1977) The significance of calcific valvular heart disease in Tc-99m pyrophosphate myocardial infarction scanning: radiographic scintigraphic and pathological correlation,. J Nucl Med 18: 776–781PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Johnson DG, Colman RE, McCook TA, Dale SK, Wells SA (1984) Bone and liver images in medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland: concise communication. J Nucl Med 25: 419–422PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kajubi SK, Chayes ZW (1985) Superscan prediction—another benefit of early renal views in bone scans. J Nucl Med 26: 428–429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kim EE, Domstad PA, Choy YC, DeLand FH (1980) Accumulation of Tc-99m phosphate complexes in metastatic lesions from colon and lung carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med 5: 299–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. King WR, Francis MD, Michael WR (1971) Effect of disodium ethane-1-hydroxy-1, 1-diphosphonate on bone formation. Clin Orthop 78: 251–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Koizumi K, Tonami N, Hisada K (1981) Diffusely increased Tc-99m MDP uptake in both kidneys. Clin Nucl Med 6: 362–365PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Kozin F, Soin JS, Ryan LM, Carrera GF, Wortmann RL (1979) Bone scintigraphy in the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome. Radiology 138: 437–443Google Scholar
  81. Kula RW, Engel WK, Line BR (1977) Scanning for soft tissue amyloid. Lancet I: 92–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Lamki LM, Wyatt JK (1983) Renal vein thrombosis as a cause of excess renal accumulation of bone seeking agents. Clin Nucl Med 8: 267–268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Lamki L, Cohen P, Driedger A (1982) Malignant pleural effusion and Tc-99m MDP accumulation. Clin Nucl Med 7: 331–333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Lantieri RL, Lin MS, Martin W, Goodwin DA (1980) Increased renal accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in renal artery stenosis. Clin Nucl Med 5: 305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lecklitner ML, Tauxe WN (1983) Bone scintigraphy and postoperative ureteropelvic urine extravasation. Eur J Nucl Med 8: 346–347PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Leicht E, Berberich R, Lauffenburger T, Haas HG (1979) Tumoral calcinosis: accumulation of bone seeking tracers in the calcium deposits. Eur J Nucl Med 4: 419–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Lentle BC, Russell AS (1984) Uptake of Tc-99m MDP in muscle anticipating clinical evidence of a carcinomatous myopathy. J Nucl Med 25: 1320–1322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Lunia SL, Heravi M, Goel V, Tiv AS, Chodos RB (1980) Pitfalls of absent or faint kidney sign on bone scan. J Nucl Med 21: 894–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Lutrin CL, McDougall IR, Goris ML (1978) Intense concentration of technetium 99m pyrophosphate in the kidneys of children treated with chemotherapeutic drugs for malignant disease. Radiology 128: 165–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Lutrin CL, Goris ML (1979) Pyrophosphate retention by previously irradiated renal tissue. Radiology 133: 207–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Lyons KP, Kuperus J, Green HW (1977) Localisation of Tc-99m pyrophosphate in the liver due to massive liver necrosis: case report. J Nucl Med 18: 550–552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Maher FT (1975) Evaluation of renal and urinary tract abnormalities noted on scintiscans. Mayo Clin Proc 50: 370–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Manoli RS, Soin JS (1978) Unilateral increased radioactivity in the lower extremities of routine 99mTc pyrophosphate bone imaging. Clin Nucl Med 3: 374–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Mariani G, Levorato D, Tuoni M, Giannotti P (1978) Incidental imaging of the large bowel in patients with uretero-sigmoidostomy during bone scintigraphy with 99mTc pyrophosphate. J Nucl Med Allied Sci 22: 153–157PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Martin-Simmerman P, Cohen MD, Siddiqui A, Mirkin D, Provisor A (1984) Calcification and uptake of Tc-99m diphosphonates in neuroblastomas: concise communication. J Nucl Med 25: 656–660PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Matin P, Lang G, Carretta R, Simon G (1983) Scintigraphic evaluation of muscle damage following extreme exercise: concise communication. J Nucl Med 24: 308–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Matsui K, Yamada H, Chiba K, Iio M (1973) Visualisation of soft tissue malignancies by using 99mTc polyphosphate, pyrophosphate and diphosphonate (99mTc-P). J Nucl Med 14: 632–633Google Scholar
  98. Mazzola AL, Barker MH, Belliveau RE (1976) Accumulation of 99mTc-diphosphonate at sites of intramuscular iron therapy: case report. J Nucl Med Tech 4:133–135Google Scholar
  99. McAfee JG, Silberstein EB (1984) Non-osseous uptake. In: Silberstein EB, McAfee JG (eds) Differential diagnosis in nuclear medicine. McGraw Hill, New York, pp 300–318Google Scholar
  100. McCartney W, Nusynowitz ML, Reimann BEF, Prather J, Mazat B (1976) 99mTc-diphosphonate uptake in neuroblastoma. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 126: 1077–1081Google Scholar
  101. McDougall IR, Pistenma DA (1974) Concentration of 99mTc diphosphonate in breast tissue. Radiology 112: 655–657PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. McLaughlin AF (1975) Uptake of 99mTc bone scanning agent by lungs with metastatic calcification, J Nucl Med 16: 322–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. McRae J, Hambright P, Valk P, Bearden AJ (1976) Chemistry of 99mTc tracers. (ii) In vitro conversion of tagged HEDP and pyrophosphate (bone seekers) into gluconate (renal agent). Effects of Ca and Fe (2) on in vivo distribution, J Nucl Med 17: 208–211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Muheim G, Donath A, Rossier AB (1973) Serial scintigrams in the course of ectopic bone formation in paraplegic patients. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 118: 865–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Neely HR, Witherspoon LR, Shuler SE (1984) Genitourinary findings incidental to bone imaging. In: Silberstein EB (ed) Bone scintigraphy. Futura, Mount Kisko, NY, pp 371–397Google Scholar
  106. Nisbet AP, Maisey MN (1982) Splenic accumulation of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate. Br J Radiol 55: 454–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Oren VO, Uszler JM (1978) Liver metastases of oat cell carcinoma of lung detected on 99mTc-diphosphonate bone scan. Clin Nucl Med 3: 355–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Orzel JA, Rudd TG, Nelp WB (1984) Heterotopic bone formation (myositis ossificans) and lower extremity swelling mimicking deep venous disease. J Nucl Med 25: 1105–1107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ozarda AT, Haynie TP, Gutierrez CR (1983) Recurrent renal cell carcinoma following nephrectomy mimicking a normal kidney on bone scan. Eur J Nucl Med 8: 148–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Park CH, Glassman LM, Thompson NL, Mata JS (1973) Reliability of renal imaging obtained incidentally in 99mTc polyphosphate bone scanning. J Nucl Med 14: 534–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Parker JA, Jones AG, Davis MA, Mcllmoyle G, Tow DE (1976) Reduced uptake of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals related to iron excess. Clin Nucl Med 1: 267–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Penney HF, Styles CB (1982) Fortuitous lymph node visualisation after interstitial injection of Tc-99m MDP. Clin Nucl Med 7: 84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Planchon CA, Donadieu AM, Perez R, Cousins JL (1983) Calcium heparinate induced extraosseous uptake in bone scanning. Eur J Nucl Med 8: 113–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Podrasky AE, Stark DD, Hattner RS, Godding CA, Moss AA (1983) Radionuclide bone scanning in neuroblastoma: skeletal metastases and primary tumour localisation with 99mTc-MDP. AJR 141: 469–472PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Poulose KP, Reba RC, Eckelman WC, Goodyear M (1975) Extraosseous localisation of 99mTc pyrophosphate. Br J Radiol 48: 724–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Prakash V, Lin MS, Perkash I (1978) Detection of heterotopic calcification with 99mTc pyrophosphate in spinal cord injury patients. Clin Nucl Med 3: 167–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Prasquier R, Taradash MR, Botvinick EH, Shames DM, Parmley WW (1977) The specificity of the diffuse pattern of cardiac uptake in myocardial infarction imaging with technetium 99m stannous pyrophosphate. Circulation 55: 61–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Que L, Wiseman J, Hales IB (1980) Small cell carcinoma of the lung: primary site and hepatic metastases both detected on Tc-99m pyrophosphate bone scan. Clin Nucl Med 6: 260–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Ravin CE, Hoyt TS, De Blanc H (1977) Concentration of 99m-technetium polyphosphate in fibrothorax following pneumonectomy. Radiology 122: 405–408PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Reuter E, Bethge N, Matthes M, Koppenhagen K (1983) 99mTc-phosphonates for imaging of amyloid in C-cell carcinoma. Eur J Nucl Med 8: 398–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Richards AG (1975) Metastatic calcification and bone scanning. J Nucl Med 16: 1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Richman LS, Gumerman LW, Levine G, Sartiano GP, Boggs SS (1975) Localisation of Tc-99m polyphosphates in soft tissue malignancies. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 124: 577–582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Rosenfield N, Treves S (1974) Osseous and extraosseous uptake of fluorine-18 and technetium-99m polyphosphates in children with neuroblastoma. Radiology 111: 127–133PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Rosenthal DI, Chandler HL, Azizi F, Schneider PB (1977) Uptake of bone imaging agents by diffuse pulmonary metastatic calcification. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 129: 871–874Google Scholar
  125. Rosenthall L (1984) Extraskeletal localisation of radiophosphate. In: Rosenthall L, Lisbona R (eds) Skeletal imaging. Prentice-Hall, London, pp 261–290Google Scholar
  126. Rosenthall L, Kaye M (1975) Technetium 99m pyrophosphate kinetics and imaging in metabolic bone disease. J Nucl Med 16: 33–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Rossier AB, Bussat PH, Infant F et al. (1973) Current facts on para-osteo-arthropathy (POA). Paraplegia 2: 35–45Google Scholar
  128. Russell RGG, Kanis JA (1984) Ectopic calcification and ossification. In: Nordin BEC (ed) Metabolic bone and stone disease. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp 344–365Google Scholar
  129. Saha GB, Herzberg DL, Boyd CM (1977) Unusual in vivo distribution of 99mTc-diphosphonate. Clin Nucl Med 2: 303–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sarreck R, Sham R, Alexander LL, Cortez EP (1979) Increased 99mTc-pyrophosphate uptake with radiation pneumonitis. Clin Nucl Med 4: 403–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Schauwecker DS, Burt RW, Richmond BD (1982) Imaging of brain tumours and other lesions utilising Tc-99m phosphates and Tc-99m pertechnetate. Clin Nucl Med 7: 493–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schmitt GH, Holmes RA, Isitman AI, Hensley Lewis JD (1974) A proposed mechanism for 99mTc-labelled polyphosphate and diphosphonate uptake by human breast tissue. Radiology 112: 733–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Seid K, Lin D, Flowers WM (1981) Intense myocardial uptake of Tc-99m MDP in a case of hypercalcaemia. Clin Nucl Med 6: 565–567PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Serafim AN, Raskin MM, Zard LC, Watson DD (1974) Radionuclide breast scanning in carcinoma of the breast. J Nucl Med 15: 1149–1152Google Scholar
  135. Sfakianakis GN, Damoulaki-Sfakianaki E, Bass JC, Earl WC, Riccobond XJ (1975) Tc-99m polyphosphate scanning in calcinosis universalis of dermatomyositis. J Nucl Med 16: 568Google Scholar
  136. Sfakianakis GN, Ortiz VN, Haase GM, Boles ET (1978) Tc-99m diphosphonate abdominal imaging in necrotising enterocolitis. J Nucl Med 19: 691–692Google Scholar
  137. Shen AC, Jennings RB (1972a) Myocardial calcium and magnesium in acute ischaemic injury. Am J Pathol 67: 417–440PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Shen AC, Jennings RB (1972b) Kinetics of calcium accumulation in acute myocardial ischaemic injury. Am J Pathol 67: 441–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Sherkow L, Yunryo V, Fabich D, Patel GC, Pinsky S (1984) Visualisation of the liver, gallbladder and intestine on bone scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med 9: 440–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Shirazi PH, Ryan WG, Fordham EW (1974) Bone scanning in evaluation of Paget’s disease of bone. CRC Crit Rev Clin Radiol Nucl Med 5: 523–558PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Siddiqui AR, Stokka CL (1980) Uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate in a surgical scar. Clin Nucl Med 5: 274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Siddiqui AR, Cohen M, Moran DP (1982) Enhanced differential diagnosis of abdominal masses using inferior vena cava, renal and bone imaging with single foot injection of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) in children. J Nucl Med 23: P7Google Scholar
  143. Siegel ME, Walker WJ, Campbell JL (1975) Accumulation of 99mTc-diphosphonate in malignant pleural effusions: Detection and verification. J Nucl Med 16: 883–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Silberstein EB (1984) Nonosseous localisation of bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals. In: Silberstein EB (ed) Bone scintigraphy. Futura, Mount Kisco, NY, pp 347–370Google Scholar
  145. Silberstein EB, Bove KE (1979) Visualisation of alcohol induced rhabdomyolysis: a correlative radiotracer, histochemical, and electron microscopic study. J Nucl Med 20: 127–129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Silberstein EB, Francis MD, Tofe AJ, Slough CL (1975) Distribution of 99mTc-Sn diphosphonate and free 99mTc-pertechnetate in selected hard and soft tissues. J Nucl Med 16: 58–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Silberstein EB, Delong S, Cline J (1984) Tc-99m diphosphonate and sulphur colloid uptake by the spleen in sickle disease: interrelationship and clinical correlates: concise communication. J Nucl Med 25: 1300–1303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Singh BN, Ryerson TW, Kesala BA, Mehta SP (1977) 99mTc-diphosphonate uptake in renal cell carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med 2: 95–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Sone T, Fukinaga M, Otsuka N et al. (1985) Metastatic medullary thyroid cancer: localisation with iodine-131 metaiodo-benzylguanidine. J Nucl Med 26: 604–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Steinfeld JR, Thome NA, Kennedy TF (1977) Positive 99mTc-pyrophosphonate bone scan in polymyositis. Radiology 122: 168PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Stone CK, Sisson JC (1985) What causes uptake of technetium 99m methylene diphosphonate by tumours ? A case where the tumour appeared to secrete a hypercalcaemia-causing substance. J Nucl Med 26: 250–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Straub WH, Slasky BS (1982) Accumulation of bone scanning agent in a communicating renal cortical cyst. Clin Nucl Med 7: 378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Sty JR Garrett R (1977) Abnormal myocardial image with 99mTc pyrophosphate in a child on che.motherapy. Clin Nucl Med 2: 65–66Google Scholar
  154. Sty JR, Starshak RJ (1982) Abnormal Tc-99m MDP renal images associated with myoglobinuria. Clin Nucl Med 7: 476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Sty JR, Babbitt DP, Kun L (1979a) Atlas of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate renal images in paediatric oncology. Clin Nucl Med 4: 122–127PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Sty JR, Babbitt DP, Casper JT, Boedecker RA (1979b) 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate imaging in neural crest tumours. Clin Nucl Med 4: 12–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Sty JR, Babbitt DP, Sheth K (1980) Abnormal Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate accumulation in the kidneys of children with sickle cell disease. Clin Nucl Med 5: 445–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Sty JR, Starshak RJ, Hubbard A (1982) Accumulation of Tc-99m MDP in the spleen of a battered child. Clin Nucl Med 7: 292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sty JR, Starshak RJ, Casper JT (1983) Extraosseous accumulation of Tc-99m MDP: metastatic intracranial neuroblastoma. Clin Nucl Med 8: 26–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Suzuki Y, Hisada K, Takeda M (1974) Demonstration of myositis ossificans by 99mTc pyrophosphate bone scanning. Radiology 111: 663–664PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Sy WM, Patel D, Faunce H (1975) Significance of absent or faint kidney sign on bone scan. J Nucl Med 16: 454–456PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Tanaka T, Rossier AB, Hussey RW, Ahnberg DS, Treves S (1977) Quantitative assessment of para-osteo-arthropathy and its maturation on serial radionuclide bone images. Radiology 123: 217–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Teates CD, Brower AC, Williamson BRJ (1977) Osteosarcoma extraosseous metastases demonstrated on bone scans and radiographs. Clin Nucl Med 2: 298–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Thrall JH, Ghaed N, Geslien GE, Pinsky SM, Johnson MC (1974) Pitfalls in Tc-99m polyphosphate skeletal imaging. Am J Roentgenol Radium Ther Nucl Med 121: 739–747PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Trackler RT, Chinn RYW (1982) Amphotericin B therapy. A cause of increased renal uptake of Tc-99m MDP. Clin Nucl Med 7: 293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Valdez VA, Jacobstein JG (1980) Visualisation of a malignant pericardial effusion with Tc-99m EHDP. Clin Nucl Med 5: 210–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Valdez VA, Bonnin JM, Martini T, Herrera NE (1978) Abnormal liver and bone scans in a case of metastatic neuroblastoma. Clin Nucl Med 3: 337–338PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Van Antwerp JD, Hall JN, O’Mara RE, Schuyler VH (1975a) Bone scan abnormality produced by interaction of Tc-99m diphosphonate with iron dextran (Imferon). J Nucl Med 16: 577Google Scholar
  169. Van Antwerp JD, O’Mara RE, Pitt MJ, Walsh S (1975b) Technetium 99m diphosphonate accumulation in amyloid. J Nucl Med 16: 238–240Google Scholar
  170. Van Duzee BF, Deprato DW, Cavanaugh DJ et al. (1982) A multi-site clinical study of factors influencing soft tissue localisation of skeletal imaging agents in children. J Nucl Med 23: 99Google Scholar
  171. Vanel D, Henry-Amar M, Lumbroso J et al. (1984) Pulmonary evaluation of patients with osteosarcoma: roles of standard radiography, tomography, CT, scintigraphy and tomoscintigraphy. AJR 143: 519–523PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. Vieras F (1977) Radiation induced skeletal and soft tissue bone scan changes. Clin Nucl Med 2: 93–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Vieras F, Boyd CM (1975) Diagnostic value of renal imaging incidental to bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-phosphate compounds. J Nucl Med 16: 1109–1114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wahner HW, Dewanjee MK (1981) Drug induced modulation of Tc-99m pyrophosphate tissue distribution: What is involved? J Nucl Med 22: 555–559PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Watson NW, Cowan RJ, Maynard CD, Richards F (1977) Resolution of metastatic calcification revealed by bone scanning: case report. J Nucl Med 18: 890–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Wenzel WW, Heasty RG (1974) Uptake of 99mTc-stannous polyphosphate in an area of cerebral infarction. J Nucl Med 15: 207–209PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. Wilkinson RH, Gaede JT (1979) Concentration of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate in hepatic metastases from squamous cell carcinoma. J Nucl Med 20: 303–305PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Willerson JT, Parkey RW, Bonte FJ, Meyer SL, Atkins JM, Stokely EM (1975) Technetium stannous pyrophosphate myocardial scintigrams in patients with chest pain of varying aetiology. Circulation 51: 1046–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. Williamson BRS, Teates CD, Bray ST, Lees RF, Croft BY (1979) Renal excretion simulating bone disease on bone scans—a technique for solving the problem. Clin Nucl Med 4: 200–201PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Wilson MA, Pollack MJ (1981) Gastric visualisation and image quality in radionuclide bone scanning: concise communication. J Nucl Med 22: 518–521PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Wilson MA, Liss LF, Studey C (1983) Calcification of hepatic metastases. J Nucl Med 24: P85Google Scholar
  182. Winter PF (1976a) Focal renal activity in bone scans. J Nucl Med 17: 429PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. Winter PF (1976b) Splenic accumulation of 99mTc diphosphonate. J Nucl Med 17: 850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Wistow BW, McAfee JG, Sagerman RH, Thomas FD, Grossman ZD (1979) Renal uptake of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate after radiation therapy. J Nucl Med 20: 32–34PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Wynchank S (1982) 99mTc methylene diphosphonate lung uptake in mixed small and large cell lymphoma. Eur J Nucl Med 7: 47–48PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Yood RA, Skinner M, Cohen AS, Lee VW (1981) Soft tissue uptake of bone seeking radionuclide in amyloidosis. J Rheumatol 8: 760–766PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Zimmer AM, Isitman AT, Holmes RA (1975) Enzyme inhibition of diphosphonate: a proposed mechanism of tissue uptake. J Nucl Med 16: 352–356PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Gray

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations