Hormone Receptors in Prostatic Cancer

  • B. G. Mobbs
  • J. G. Connolly
Part of the Clinical Practice in Urology book series (PRACTICE UROLOG)


During the last decade, the clinical use of steroid hormone receptor assays has become an accepted part of the management of a number of diseases of hormone target organs. In breast cancer, and to a lesser extent in endometrial cancer, the concentrations of receptors for estrogen and progestin in the malignant tissue are regarded as prognostic factors in early disease, and as predictive factors for the value of endocrine treatment for patients with advanced disease (Knight et al. 1980; McGuire and Clark 1983). In acute lymphocytic leukemia, the cellular concentration of glucocorticoid receptors appears to be an indicator of prognosis and response to glucocorticoid therapy (Costlow et al. 1982). The assay of androgen receptor (AR) in cultured genital skin fibroblasts can assist in the diagnosis and selection of treatment of benign conditions such as androgen resistance syndromes (Bardin and Wright 1980). It is therefore somewhat disappointing that studies of the application of AR assays to the management of prostatic carcinoma, which is known to be an androgen-sensitive disease in the majority of cases, have met with very limited success. Some of the reasons for this are inherent in the nature of the disease and are discussed below. Nevertheless, the research involved in the development of these assays, together with that into related areas of the biochemistry of human and animal prostatic tissue, has added much to our knowledge of the basic mechanisms involved in the control of prostatic growth.


Androgen Receptor Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Human Prostate Androgen Metabolism Androgen Sensitivity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albert J, Geller J, Nachtsheim DA (1982) The type of current frequency used in transurethral resection of the prostate ( TURP) affects the androgen receptor. Prostate 3: 221–224PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Armstrong EG, Bashirelahi N (1978) Determination of the binding properties of estradiol-17(3 within the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions of rat ventral prostate. J Steroid Biochem 9: 507–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Assimos D, Smith C, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1984) Action of prolactin in regressing prostate: independent of action mediated by androgen receptors. Prostate 5: 589–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Auf G, Ghanadian R (1982) Characterization and measurement of cytoplasmic and nuclear oestradiol-17ß-receptor protein in benign hypertrophied human prostate. J Endocrinol 98: 305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bard DR, Lasnitzki I (1977) The influence of oestradiol on the metabolism of androgen by human prostatic tissue. J Endocrinol 74: 1–9PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bardin CW, Wright W (1980) Androgen receptor deficiency: testicular feminization, its variants, and differential diagnosis. Ann Clin Res 12: 236–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barrack ER (1983) The nuclear matrix of the prostate contains acceptor sites for androgen receptors. Endocrinology 113: 430–432PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barrack ER, Bujnovsky P, Walsh PC (1983) Subcellular distribution of androgen receptors in human normal, benign hyperplastic and malignant prostatic tissues: characterization of nuclear salt-resistant receptors. Cancer Res 43: 1107–1116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bashirelahi N, Kneussel ES, Vassil TC, Young JD, Sanefugi H, Trump B (1979) Measurement and characterization of estrogen receptors in the human prostate. In: Murphy GP, Sandberg A A (eds) Prostate cancer and hormone receptors. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 65–84Google Scholar
  10. Bashirelahi N, Felder CC, Young JD (1983a) Characterization and stabilization of progesterone receptors in human benign prostatic hypertrophy. J Steroid Biochem 18: 801–809PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bashirelahi N, Young JD, Shida K, Yamanaka H, Ito Y, Harada M (1983b) Androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors in peripheral and central zones of human prostate with adenocarcinoma. Urology XXI: 530–535Google Scholar
  12. Beckmann WC, Mickey DD, Fried AF (1985) Autoradiographic localization of estrogen and androgen target cells in human and rat prostatic carcinoma. J Urol 133: 724–728Google Scholar
  13. Belis JA (1980) Methodologie basis for the radioimmunoassay of endogenous steroids in human prostatic tissue. Invest Urol 17: 332–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Belis JA, Tarry WF (1981) Radioimmunoassay of tissue steroids in adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Cancer 48: 2416–2419PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Berns EMJJ, Mulder E, Rommerts FFG et al. (1984) Fluorescent androgen derivatives do not discriminate between androgen receptor-positive and -negative human tumor cell lines. Prostate 5: 425–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blankenstein MA, Bolt-de Vreis J, Foekens JA (1982) Nuclear androgen receptor assay in biopsy-size specimens of human prostatic tissue. Prostate 3: 351–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blondeau JP, Corpechot C, le Goascogne C, Baulieu EE, Röbel P (1975) Androgen receptors in the rat ventral prostate and their hormonal control. Vitam Horm 33: 319–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bolton NJ, Lahtonen R, Vihko P, Kontturi M, Vihko R (1981) Androgen and prostate specific acid phosphatase in whole tissue and in separated epithelium from human benign prostatic hypertrophic glands. Prostate 2: 209–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouton MM, Pornin C, Grandadam JA (1981) Estrogen regulation of rat prostate androgen receptor. J Steroid Biochem 15: 403–408PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brendler CB, Isaacs JT, Follansbee AL, Walsh PC (1984) The use of multiple variables to predict response to endocrine therapy in carcinoma of the prostate: a preliminary report. J Urol 131: 694–700PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brendler CB, Follansbee AL, Isaacs JT (1985) Discrimination between normal, hyperplastic and malignant human prostatic tissues by enzymatic profiles. J Urol 133: 495–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Briggs MH, Briggs M (1973) Effects of ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate on androgen metabolism by human prostate gland. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36: 600–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruchovsky N, Lesser B, Van Doom E, Craven S (1975) Hormonal effects on cell proliferation in rat prostate. Vitam Horm 33: 61–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bruchovsky N, Callaway T, Lieskovsky B, Rennie PS (1980) Markers of androgen action in human prostate: potential use in the clinical assessment of prostatic carcinoma. In: Wittliff JL, Dapunt O (eds) Steroid receptors and hormone-dependent neoplasia. Masson, New York, pp 121–131Google Scholar
  25. Buell RH, Tremblay G (1983) The localization of 3H-estradiol in estrogen receptor-positive human mammary carcinoma as visualized by thaw-mount autoradiography. Cancer 51: 1625–1630PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cochran RC, Ewing LL, Niswender GD (1981) Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17ß-diol, 5a-androstane-3ß,17ß-diol, and 17ß-estradiol from male beagles with spontaneous or induced benign prostatic hyperplasia. Invest Urol 19: 142–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Costlow ME, Pui C-H, Dahl GV (1982) Glucocorticoid receptors in acute lymphocytic leukemia. Cancer Res 42: 4801–4806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Donnelly BJ, Lakey WH, McBlain WA (1983) Estrogen receptor in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. J Urol 130: 183–187PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Dube JY, Lesage R, Tremblay RR (1979) Estradiol and progesterone receptors in dog prostate cytosol. J Steroid Biochem 10: 459–466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ekman P, Snochowski M, Zatterberg A, Hogberg B, Gustafsson J-A (1979) Steroid receptor content in human prostatic carcinoma and response to endocrine therapy. Cancer 44: 1173–1181PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ekman P, Barrack ER, Walsh PC (1982) Simultaneous measurement of progesterone and androgen receptors in human prostate: a microassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55: 1089–1099PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ekman P, Barrack ER, Greene GL, Jensen EV, Walsh PC (1983) Estrogen receptors in human prostate: evidence for multiple binding sites. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 57: 166–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fang S, Anderson KM, Liao S (1969) Receptor proteins for androgens. On the role of specific proteins in selective retention of 17ß-hydroxy-5α-androstane-3-one by rat ventral prostate in vivo and in vitro. J Biol Chem 244: 6584–6595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fentie DD, Lakey WH, McBlain WA (1986) Applicability of nuclear androgen receptor quantification to human prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Urol 135: 167–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fowler JE, Whitmore WF (1981) The response of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate to exogenous testosterone. J Urol 126: 372–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Frenette G, Dube JY, Tremblay RR (1982) Effect of hormone injections on levels of cytosolic receptors for estrogen, androgen and progesterone in dog prostate. J Steroid Biochem 17: 271–276PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Geller J, Cantor T, Albert J (1975) Evidence for a specific dihydrotestosterone-binding cytosol receptor in the human prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 854–862PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Geller J, Albert J, Loza D (1979) Steroid levels in cancer of the prostate—markers of tumor differentiation and adequacy of anti-androgen treatment. J Steroid Biochem 11: 631–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geller J, de la Vega DJ, Albert J, Nachtsheim DA (1984) Tissue dihydrotestosterone levels and clinical response to hormonal therapy with patients with advanced prostate cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 58: 36–40Google Scholar
  40. Ghanadian R, Auf G, Williams G, Davis A, Richards B (1981) Predicting the response of prostatic carcinoma to endocrine therapy. Lancet 11: 1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ginsberg M, Jung-Testas I, Baulieu EE (1980) Specific high-affinity oestradiol binding in rat ventral prostate. J Endocrinol 87: 285–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gonor SE, Lakey WH, McBlain WA (1984) Relationship between concentrations of extractable and matrix-bound nuclear androgen receptor and clinical response to endocrine therapy for prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Urol 131:1196-1201 Grayhack J (1963) Pituitary factors influencing growth of the prostate. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 12: 189–199Google Scholar
  43. Greene GL, Sobel NB, King WJ, Jensen EV (1984) Immunochemical studies of estrogen receptors. J Steroid Biochem 20: 51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gustafsson J-A, Ekman P, Pousette A, Snochowski M, Hogberg B (1978) Demonstration of a progestin receptor in human benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatic carcinoma. Invest Urol 15: 361–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Habib FK, Tesdale AL, Chisholm GD, Busuttil A (1981) Androgen metabolism in the epithelial and stromal components of the human hyperplasic prostate. J Endocrinol 91: 23–32PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Habib FK, Busuttil A, Robinson RA, Chisholm GD (1985a) 5α-Reductase activity in human prostate cancer is related to the histological differentiation of the tumour. Clin Endocrinol 23: 431–438Google Scholar
  47. Habib FK, Smith T, Robinson R, Chisholm GD (1985b) Influence of surgical techniques on receptor level and 5α-reductase activity of the human prostate gland. Prostate 7: 287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hammond GL (1978) Endogenous steroid levels in the human prostate from birth to old age: a comparison of normal and diseased tissues. J Endocrinol 78: 7–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harper ME, Peeling WB, Cowley T et al. (1976) Plasma steroid and protein hormone concentrations in patients with prostatic carcinoma, before and during oestrogen therapy. Acta Endocrinol 81: 409–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hawkins GF, Trachtenberg J, Hicks LL, Walsh PC (1980) Androgen and estrogen receptors in the canine prostate. J Androl 5: 234–243Google Scholar
  51. Heston WDW, Menon M, Tananis C, Walsh PC (1979) Androgen, estrogen and progesterone receptors of the R3327 H Copenhagen rat prostatic tumor. Cancer Lett 6: 45–50PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hudson RW (1982) Studies of the cytosol 3a-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of human prostatic tissue: comparison of enzyme activities in hyperplastic, malignant and normal tissues. J Steroid Biochem 16: 373–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hudson RW, Moffitt PM, Owens WA (1983) Studies of the nuclear 5a-reductase of human prostatic tissue: comparison of enzyme activities in hyperplastic malignant and normal tissues. Can J Biochem Cell Biol 61: 750–755PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Huggins C, Russell PS (1946) Quantitative effects of hypophysectomy on testis and prostate of dogs. Endocrinology 39: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ip MM, Milholland RJ, Rosen J (1980) Functionality of estrogen receptor and tamoxifen treatment of R3327 Dunning rat prostate adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res 40: 2188–2193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Isaacs JT, Heston WDW, Weissman RM, Coffey DS (1978) Animal models of the hormone- sensitive and -insensitive prostatic carcinomas, Dunning R-3327-H, R3327-HI, and R-3327-AT. Cancer Res 38: 4353–4359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Jacobi GH (1982) Experimental rationale for the investigation of antiprolactins as palliative treatment for prostate cancer. In: Jacobi GH, Hohenfeller R (eds) International perspectives in Urology 3: Prostate cancer. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 419–431Google Scholar
  58. Jenkins JS, McCaffery VM (1974) Effect of oestradiol-17ß and progesterone on the metabolism of testosterone by human prostatic tissue. J Endocrinol 63: 517–526PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jensen EV (1984) Intracellular localization of estrogen receptors: implications for interaction mechanism. Lab Invest 51: 487–488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Karr JP, Sufrin G, Kirdani RY, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA (1978) Prostatic binding of estradiol-17ß in the baboon. J Steroid Biochem 9: 87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Keenan EJ, Kemp ED, Ramsay EE, Garrison LB, Pearse HD, Hodges CV (1979) Specific binding of prolactin by the prostate gland of rat and man. J Urol 122: 43–46PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kirdani RY, Pontes EJ, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA (1984) Correlation of estrogen and androgen receptor status in prostatic disease measured by high pressure liquid chromatography. J Steroid Biochem 20: 401–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kitano T, Usui T, Yasukawa A, Nakahara M, Nihira H, Miyachi Y (1983) Androgen receptor in electroresected and cold punch-resected specimens. Urology XXI: 119–122Google Scholar
  64. Kliman B, Prout GR, Maclaughlin RA, Daly JJ, Griffin PP (1978) Altered androgen metabolism in metastatic prostate cancer. J Urol 119: 623–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Knight WA, Osborne CK, Yochmowitz MG, McGuire WL (1980) Steroid hormone receptors in the management of breast cancer. Ann Clin Res 12: 202–207PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kozak I, Bartsch W, Krieg M, Voigt KD (1982) Nuclei of stroma: site of highest estrogen concentration in human benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate 3: 433–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Krieg M (1984) Biochemical endocrinology of human prostatic tumors. In: Bresciani F, King RJB, Lippman M, Namer M, Raynaud J-P (eds) Progress in cancer research and therapy, vol 32. Raven Press, New York, pp 425–452Google Scholar
  68. Krieg M, Bartsch W, Janssen W, Voigt KD (1979) A comparative study of binding, metabolism and endogenous levels of androgens in normal, hyperplastic and carcinomatous human prostate. J Steroid Biochem 11: 615–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Leake A, Chisholm GD, Habib FK (1983) Characterization of the prolactin receptor in human prostate. J Endocrinol 99: 321–328PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Markland FS, Lee L (1979) Characterization and comparison of the estrogen and androgen receptors from the R-3327 rat prostate adenocarcinoma. J Steroid Biochem 10: 13–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mawhinney MG, Neubauer BL (1979) Actions of estrogen in the male. Invest Urol 16: 409–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. McGuire WL, Clark GM (1983) The prognostic role of progesterone receptors in human breast cancer. Semin Oncol 10: 2–6PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. McNeal JE (1981) The zonal anatomy of the prostate. Prostate 2: 35–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Menon M, Tananis CE, McLoughlin MG, Lippman ME, Walsh PC (1977) The measurement of androgen receptors in human prostatic tissue utilizing sucrose density gradient centrifugation and a protamine precipitation assay. J Urol 117: 309–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE (1985a) Characterization of estrogen-induced progestin binding in cytosol of the R3327 prostatic carcinoma of the rat. J Steroid Biochem 22: 57–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE (1985b) Relationships between estrogen intake, serum testosterone, and tumor androgen, estrogen, and progesterone receptor levels in diethylstilbestrol-treated rats bearing the R3327 prostatic adenocarcinoma. Prostate 7: 293–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE (1986) Quantitative relationships between cytosol and nuclear estrogen and progesterone receptors in the R3327 prostatic carcinoma of rats treated with diethylstilbestrol. Prostate 8: 255–264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG (1975) In vitro assay of androgen binding by human prostate. J Steroid Biochem 6: 453–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG, Clark AF (1977) Evaluation of the use of cyproterone acetate competition to distinguish between high-affinity binding of [3H]-dihydrotestosterone to human prostate cytosol receptors and to sex hormone-binding globulin. J Steroid Biochem 8: 943–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG (1978) Androgen receptor assay in human benign and malignant prostatic tumor cytosol using protamine sulphate precipitation. J Steroid Biochem 9: 289–301PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG (1980a) Androgen receptors and treatment of prostatic cancer. In: Schroder FH, de Voogt HJ (eds) Steroid receptors, metabolism and prostatic cancer. Excerpta Medica Amsterdam, pp 225–239Google Scholar
  82. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG (1980b) The effect of therapy on the concentration and occupancy of androgen receptors in human prostatic cytosol. Prostate 1: 37–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Mobbs BG, Johnson IE, Connolly JG, Thompson J (1983) Concentration and cellular distribution of androgen receptor in human prostatic neoplasia: Can estrogen treatment increase androgen receptor content? J Steroid Biochem 19: 1279–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Morfin RF, Charles J-F, Floch HH (1979) C1902-steroid transformations in the human normal, hyperplastic and cancerous prostate. J Steroid Biochem 11: 599–607PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Murphy JB, Emmott RC, Hicks LL, Walsh PC (1980) Estrogen receptor in the human prostate, seminal vesicle, epididymis, testis, and genital skin: a marker for estrogen-responsive tissues. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 938–948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Naito H, Ito H, Wakisaka M, Kambegawa A, Shimazaki J (1981) Histochemical observation of R1881 binding protein in human benign prostatic hypertrophy. Invest Urol 18: 337–340PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Newball HH, Byar DP (1973) Does reserpine increase prolactin and exacerbate cancer of prostate? Case control study. Urology 11: 525–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Orestano F, Klose K, Rubin A, Knapstein P, Altwein JE (1974) Testosterone metabolism in benign prostatic hypertrophy. Suppression by diethylstilbestrol and gestonerone capronate. Invest Urol 12: 151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Pertschuk LP, Macchia RJ, New York Prostate Cancer Binding Site Study Group (1984) Histochemical androgen binding assay in prostatic cancer. J Urol 131: 1096–1098Google Scholar
  90. Pontes JE, Rose NR, Ercole C, Pierce JM (1981) Immunofluorescence for prostatic acid phosphatase: clinical applications. J Urol 126: 187–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Purnell DM, Hillman EA, Heatfield BM, Trump BF (1982) Immunoreactive prolactin in epithelial cells of normal and cancerous human breast and prostate detected by the unlabelled antibody peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Cancer Res 42: 2317–2324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Rennie PS, Bruchovsky N (1972) In vitro and in vivo studies on the functional significance of androgen receptors in rat prostate. J Biol Chem 247: 1546–1554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Rennie PS, Bruchovsky N, Chang H (1983a) Isolation of 3S androgen receptors from salt-resistant fractions and nuclear matrices of prostatic nuclei after mild trypsin digestion. J Biol Chem 258: 7623–7630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Rennie PS, Bruchovsky N, McLoughlin MG, Batzold FH, Dunstan-Adams EE (1983b) Kinetic analysis of 5α-reductase isoenzymes in benign prostatic hyperplasia ( BPH ). J Steroid Biochem 19: 169–173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Robinette CL, Blume CD, Mawhinney MG (1978) Androphilic and estrophilic molecules in canine prostate glands. Invest Urol 15: 425–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Rose DP, Laakso K, Sotaranta M, Wynder E (1984) Hormone levels in prostatic fluid from healthy Finns and prostatic cancer patients. Eur J Cancer 20: 1317–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosen V, Jung I, Baulieu EE, Robel P (1975) Androgen-binding proteins in human benign prostatic hypertrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 41: 761–770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sanefugi H, Heatfield BM, Trump BF, Young SD (1982) Studies on carcinogenesis of human prostate. II. Long-term explant culture of normal prostate and benign prostatic hyperplasia: light microscopy. J Natl Cancer Inst 69: 751–756Google Scholar
  99. Schneider SL, Pontes E, Greco JM, Murphy GP, Sandberg AA (1984) Characterization of 7-8S progestin binding protein in human prostate using vertical tube rotor. J Steroid Biochem 20: 715–723PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Seppelt U (1978) Correlation among prostate stroma, plasma estrogen levels and urinary estrogen excretion in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 74: 1230–1235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Shain SA, Boesel RW, Lamm DL, Radwin HM (1980) Cytoplasmic and nuclear androgen receptor content of normal and neoplastic human prostate and lymph node metastases of human prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 50: 704–711PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Shimazaki J, Hikage T, Sato R, Kodama T, Ito H (1981) Measurement of androgen receptor in cytosols from normal, benign hypertrophic and cancerous human prostates. Endocrinol Jpn 28: 725–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Sibley PEC, Harper ME, Boyce BG, Peeling WP, Griffiths K (1981) The immunocytochemical detection of protein hormones in human prostatic tissues. Prostate 2: 175–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sibley PEC, Harper ME, Peeling WB, Griffiths K (1984) Growth hormone and prostatic tumors: localization using a monoclonal human growth hormone antibody. J Endocrinol 103: 311–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Sirrett DAN (1983) Progestin binding in benign hyperplastic prostatic tissue. J Steroid Biochem 19: 163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Skoldefors H, Blomstedt B, Carlstrom K (1978) Serum hormone levels in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Scand J Urol Nephrol 12: 111–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith C, Assimos D, Lee C, Grayhack JT (1985) Metabolic action of prolactin in regressing prostate: independent of androgen action. Prostate 6: 49–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Tan SY, Antonipillai, Pearson Murphy BE (1974) Inhibition of testosterone metabolism in the human prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 39: 936–941PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Tisell L-E, Salander H (1975) The lobes of the human prostate. Scand J Urol Nephrol 9: 185–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Trachtenberg J, Walsh PC (1982) Correlation of prostatic nuclear androgen receptor content with duration of response and survival following hormonal therapy in advanced prostatic cancer. J Urol 127: 466–471PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Trachtenberg J, Bujnovsky P, Walsh PC (1982a) Androgen receptor content of normal and hyperplastic human prostate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 54: 17–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Trachtenberg J, Hicks LL, Walsh PC (1982b) Androgen and estrogen receptor content in spontaneous and experimentally induced canine prostatic hyperplasia. J Clin Invest 65: 1051–1052CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Vihko R, Bolton N, Hammond GL, Lahtonen R (1981) Steroids in normal and diseased human prostatic tissue. In: Fotherby K, Pal SB (eds) Hormones in normal and abnormal tissues. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin New York, pp 523–539Google Scholar
  114. Wagner RK (1980) Lack of correlation between androgen receptor content and clinical response to treatment with diethylstilbestrol (DES) in human prostate carcinoma. In: Schroder FH, de Voogt HJ (eds) Steroid receptors, metabolism and prostatic cancer. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, pp 190–197Google Scholar
  115. Walsh PC (1984) Human benign prostatic hyperplasia: etiological considerations. In: Kimball FA, Buhl AE, Carter DB (eds) New approaches to the study of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 1–25Google Scholar
  116. Walsh PC, Hicks LL (1979) Characterization and measurement of androgen receptors in human prostatic tissue. In: Murphy GP, Sandberg A A (eds) Prostate cancer and hormone receptors. Alan R Liss, New York, pp 51–63Google Scholar
  117. Walsh PC, Hutchins GM, Ewing LL (1983) Tissue content of dihydrotestosterone in human prostatic hyperplasia is not supranormal. J Clin Invest 72: 1772–1777PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Weaker F, Sheridan PJ (1983) Autoradiographic localization of 3H-dihydrotestosterone in the reproductive organs of baboons. Acta Anat 115: 244–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Witorsch R (1979) The application of immunoperoxidase methodology for the visualization of prolactin binding sites in human prostate tissue. Human Pathol 10: 521–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Zava DT, Landrum B, Horwitz KB, McGuire WL (1979) Androgen receptor assay with [3H] methyltrienolone (R1881) in the presence of progesterone receptors. Endocrinology 104: 1007–1012PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. G. Mobbs
  • J. G. Connolly

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations