Chemotherapy of Prostatic Cancer

  • R. P. Huben
  • G. P. Murphy
Part of the Clinical Practice in Urology book series (PRACTICE UROLOG)


Optimal management of patients with hormone-refractory prostatic cancer remains problematic. While there is some acceptance of the results of numerous clinical studies which have reported that chemotherapy is superior to further hormonal approaches or other supportive measures as a treatment option for hormone-refractory prostatic cancer, there persists a “general pessimism” about the use of chemotherapy in this patient population (Scott et al. 1976; Murphy et al. 1977; Logathetis et al. 1983; Torti 1983). This pessimism may be caused in part by the variability in clinical course of metastatic prostatic cancer and the problems in determining response to therapy in a systemic stage of disease which is particularly difficult to quantify. Since there is reason to question the overall impact of hormonal therapy in advanced prostatic cancer, it is not surprising that the impact of chemotherapy, which may cause a far less dramatic response, is all the more controversial.


Prostatic Cancer Metastatic Prostatic Cancer Soft Tissue Lesion Estramustine Phosphate Chemohormonal Therapy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beynon LL, Chisholm GD (1984) The stable state is not an objective response in hormone—escaped carcinoma of prostate. Br J Urol 56: 702–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bulbul M, Huben RP, Murphy GP (1986) Interferon-β treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. J Surg Oncol 33: 231–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chisholm GD, Stone AR, Beynon LL, Merrick MV (1982) The bone scan as a tumor marker in prostatic carcinoma. Eur Urol 8: 257–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Citrin DL, Hogan TF, Davis TE (1983) Chemohormonal therapy of metastatic prostate cancer. A pilot study. Cancer 52: 410–414PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Citrin DL, Elson P, DeWys WD (1984) Treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. An analysis of response criteria in patients with measurable soft tissue disease. Cancer 54: 13–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Creaven PJ (1984) Cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents under development with a possible future role in prostate cancer. Prostate 5: 484–493Google Scholar
  7. Creaven PJ, Madajewicz S, Mittelman A (1984) New potential treatment modalities for disseminated prostatic cancer. Urol Clin North Am 11: 343–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. deKernion JB, Lindner A (1984) Chemotherapy of hormonally unresponsive prostatic carcinoma Urol Clin North Am 11: 319–326Google Scholar
  9. deVere White R, Babayan RK, Krikorian J, Krane RJ, Olsson CA (1983) Adjuvant chemotherapy for stage Dx adenocarcinoma of prostate. Urology 21: 270–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Droller MJ (1985) Immunotherapy in genitourinary neoplasia. J Urol 133: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Eisenkraft S, Huben RP, Pontes JE (1984) Orchiectomy and chemotherapy with estramustine, cis-platinum, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil in newly diagnosed prostate cancer with bone metastases. Urology [Suppl] 23: 51–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fitzpatrick JM, Constable AR, Sherwood T, Stephenson JJ, Chisholm GD, O’Donoghue EPN (1978) Serial bone scanning: the assessment of treatment response in carcinoma of the prostate. Br J Urol 50: 555–561PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Guinan P, Ray P, Shaw M (1984) Immunotherapy of prostate cancer: a review. Prostate 5: 221–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Herr WW (1982) Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil combination chemotherapy versus chloroethyl-cyclohexynitrosourea in the treatment of metastatic prostatic cancer. J Urol 127: 462–465PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ihde DC, Bunn PA, Cohen MH, Dunnick NR, Eddy JL, Minna JD (1980) Effective treatment of hormonally-unresponsive metastatic carcinoma of the prostate with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide. Methods of documenting tumor response and progression. Cancer 45: 1300–1310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Isaacs JT (1984) The timing of androgen ablation therapy and/or chemotherapy in the treatment of prostatic cancer. Prostate 5: 1–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Loening S, Narayana A (1980) Adjuvant chemotherapy to definitive treatment of prostate cancer. Prostate 1: 321–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Loening SA, Scott WW, deKernion J et al. (1981) A comparison of hydroxyurea, methyl- chloroethyl-cyclohexy-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide in patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 125: 812–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Loening SA, Beckley S, Brady MF et al. (1983) Comparison of estramustine phosphate, methotrexate and cis-platinum in patients with advanced, hormone refractory prostate cancer. J Urol 129: 1001–1006PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Logothetis CJ, Samuels ML, vonEschenback AC, Trindale A, Ogden S, Grant C, Johnson DE (1983) Doxorubicin, mitomycin-C, and 5-fluorouracil ( DMF) in the treatment of metastatic hormonal refractory adenocarcinoma of the prostate, with a note on the staging of metastatic prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol 1: 368–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Murphy GP (1984) Chemotherapy: Is it effective in treatment of prostatic cancer? Urology [Suppl] 24: 41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Murphy GP (1979) Management of disseminated prostatic carcinoma. In: Murphy GP (ed) Prostate cancer. PSG, Littleton MA Sci Grp. 13: 213–233Google Scholar
  23. Murphy GP, Slack NH (1980) Response criteria for the prostate of the USA National Prostatic Cancer Project. Prostate 1: 375–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Murphy GP, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE et al. (1977) A comparison of estramustine phosphate and streptozotocin in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma who have had extensive irradiation. J Urol 118: 288–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Murphy GP, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE et al. (1979) The use of estramustine and prednimustine versus prednimustine alone in advanced metastatic prostatic cancer patients who have received prior irradiation. Am Assoc Genitourinary Surg 70: 69–71Google Scholar
  26. Murphy GP, Beckley S, Brady MF et al. (1983) Treatment of newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer patients with chemotherapy agents in combination with hormones versus hormones alone. Cancer 51: 1264–1272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Page JP, Levi JA, Woods RL, Tattersall MN, Fox RM, Coates AS (1985) Randomized trial of combination chemotherapy in hormone-resistant metastatic prostate carcinoma. Cancer Treat Rep 69: 105–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Penman DT, Holland JC, Bahna GF et al. (1984) Informed consent for investigational chemotherapy: patients’ and physicians’ perceptions. J Clin Oncol 2: 849–855PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Scher H, Yagoda A, Watson RC, Serber M, Whitmore W (1984) Phase II trial of doxorubicin in bidimensionally measurable prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Urol 131: 1099–1102PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmidt JD (1093) Cytotoxic agents effective in prostate cancer. Semin Urol 1: 299–310Google Scholar
  31. Schmidt JD (1984) Cooperative clinical trials of the National Prostate Cancer Project: protocol 900. Prostate 5: 387–399PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Schmidt JD, Scott WW, Gibbons RP et al. (1979) Comparison of procarbazine, imidazole- carboxamide and cyclophosphamide in relapsing patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 121: 185–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Schmidt JD, Scott WW, Gibbons R et al. (1980) Chemotherapy programs of the National Prostatic Cancer Project ( NPCP ). Cancer 45: 1937–1946PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Scott WW, Gibbons RP, Johnson DE, Prout GR, Schmidt JD, Saroff J, Murphy GP (1976) The continued evaluation of the effects of chemotherapy in patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 116: 211–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Servadio C, Mukamel E, Lurie H, Nissenkorn I (1983) Early combined hormonal and chemotherapy for metastatic prostatic carcinoma. Urology 21: 493–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Silverberg E (1986) Cancer statistics, 1986. CA 36: 9–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Slack NH (1983) Results of chemotherapy protocols of the USA National Prostatic Cancer Project (NPCP). Clin Oncol 2: 441–459Google Scholar
  38. Slack NH, Murphy GP (1983) A decade of experience with chemotherapy of prostate cancer. Urology 22: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Slack NH, Mittelman A, Brady MF, Murphy GP, Investigators in the National Prostatic Cancer Project (1980a) The importance of the stable category for chemotherapy treated patients with advanced and relapsing prostate cancer. Cancer 46: 2393–2402Google Scholar
  40. Slack NH, Murphy GP, participants in the National Prostatic Cancer Project (1980b) Overview of chemotherapy programs of the NPCP. Prostate 1: 367–373Google Scholar
  41. Slack NH, Brady MF, Murphy GP, Investigators in the National Prostatic Cancer Project (1984) Stable versus partial response in advanced prostate cancer. Prostate 5: 401–415Google Scholar
  42. Soloway MS, deKernion JB, Gibbons RP et al. (1981) Comparison of estramustine phosphate and vincristine alone or in combination for patients with advanced hormone refractory, previously irradiated carcinoma of the prostate. J Urol 125: 664–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Soloway MS, Beckley S, Brady MF et al. (1983) estramustine phosphate versus cis-platinum alone versus estramustine phosphate plus cis-platinum in patients with advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer who had had extensive irradiation to the pelvis or lumbosacral area. J Urol 129: 56–61Google Scholar
  44. Stephens RL, Vaughn C, Lane M et al. (1984) Adriamycin and cyclophosphamide versus hydroxyurea in advanced prostatic cancer. A randomized Southwest Oncology Group Study. ICRDB Cancergram, Series CT16, No 84 /07, 5Google Scholar
  45. Straus MJ, Fleit JP, Engelking C (1982) Treatment of advanced prostate cancer with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and methotrexate. Cancer Treat Rep 66: 1797–1802PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Torti FM (1983) Prostatic cancer chemotherapy. Cancer Res 85: 58–69Google Scholar
  47. Torti FM, Carter SK (1980) The chemotherapy of prostatic adenocarcinoma. Ann Intern Med 92: 681–689PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Yagoda A (1983) Cytotoxic agents in prostate cancer: an enigma. Semin Urol 1: 311–322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Yagoda A, Watson RC, Natale RB, Barzell W, Sogani P, Grabstald H, Whitmore WF (1979) A critical analysis of response criteria in patients with prostatic cancer treated with cisdiamminedichloride platinum II. Cancer 44: 1553–1562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. P. Huben
  • G. P. Murphy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations