Percutaneous Approach to Urinary Tract Calculi
Urinary tract calculi are a major cause of morbidity and mortality, as they are responsible for over 7 out of every 1000 general hospital admissions. In certain areas of the United States, particularly the southeast, this rate of hospital admission for stone disease more than doubles . Stones predispose to urinary tract infection by causing obstruction and stasis, and by providing a nidus which may harbor bacteria. In addition, infection of the urinary tract by urea splitting bacteria induces struvite stone formation by making the urine more alkaline, which results in the precipitation of magnesium ammonium phosphate and calcium apatite. Stones are also associated with an increased incidence of squamous cell carcinomas of the urinary tract.
KeywordsGuide Wire Ureteral Stone Percutaneous Approach Stone Removal Percutaneous Nephrostomy
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